Heterosis, direct and maternal additive effects on rabbit growth and carcass traits from a Canadian experiment

Abida Ouyed, J. Rivest, Jean Michel Brun

Abstract

A total of 479 male and female rabbits from the Californian (CA), American Chinchilla (CH) and New-Zealand White (NZ) breeds and nine crosses between them were used in this experiment. This study aimed to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal additive effects as well as some non genetic effects on rabbit growth and carcass traits in order to identify the most appropriate crossbreeding plan to use for rabbit meat production under Quebec conditions. Each rabbit was identified and weighed individually at weaning (35 d) and at slaughter (63 d). Rabbits were slaughtered after an 18 h fasting period from feed only. Statistical analyses were performed solving fixed models that allow different variances between genetic types. Significant statistical differences were obtained between genetic types for rabbit growth performance. Rabbits from purebred NZ females mated to CA and NZ males or from CA×NZ and NZ×CH crossbred females mated to NZ males ranked first for live weight at 35 and 63 d body weight and for average daily gain (ADG). ADG of NZ×NZ, NZ×(NZ×CH) and NZ×(CA×NZ) rabbits reached around 50 g/d and their feed conversion ratio was about 3.4. Significant differences between genetic types were observed for all carcass traits except for meat/bone ratio. Rabbits from CH, NZ, CA×NZ and NZ×CH does mated to NZ males, and from NZ does mated to CA males had the highest commercial carcass weight and the lowest commercial carcass yield (CCY), whereas CH×CA rabbits ranked first with a CCY higher by 4 to 8% than rabbits from other genetic types. The highest hind part yields were obtained with CH×CH, CH×NZ and NZ×CH rabbits. Concerning the intermediate part percentages, the highest values corresponded to the highest CCY. The CH breed had unfavourable direct effects but favourable maternal effects on growth traits. The CA breed had negative maternal effects on weight traits from weaning to slaughtering. The CA and CH breeds had positive direct and negative maternal effects on intermediate part yield of the carcass compared to NZ. Direct heterosis effects were found for body weight traits, particularly in the crosses involving the NZ breed, with a magnitude ranging from 5 to 10% of the parental mean.


Keywords

breed; rabbit; growth; carcass; crossbreeding; maternal effects; heterosis

Full Text:

PDF

References

REFERENCES

Baselga M. 2004. Genetic improvement of meat rabbits. Programmes and diffusion. In Proc.: 8th World Rabbit Congress, 7-10 September, 2004. Puebla, Mexico. 1-13.

Blasco A., Ouhayoun J., Masoero G. 1992. Status of rabbit meat and carcass: Criteria and terminology. Options Méditerranéennes, Série Séminaire, 17: 105-120.

Blasco A., Ouhayoun J. 1996. Harmonization of criteria and terminology in rabbit meat research. Revised proposal. World Rabbit Sci., 4: 93-99.

Brun J.M., Ouhayoun J. 1989. Growth performances and carcass traits in three strains of rabbits and their two-way crosses. Ann. Zootech., 38: 171-179. doi: 10.1051/animres:19890211.

Brun J.M., Ouhayoun J. 1994. Qualités bouchères de lapereaux issus d’un croisement diallèle de 3 souches: interaction du type génétique et de la taille de portée d’origine. Ann. Zootech., 43: 173-183. doi: 10.1051/animres:19940207.

Dickerson G.E. 1969. Experimental approaches in utilizing breed resources. Anim. Breed. Abstr., 37: 191-202.

Fortun-Lamothe L., Sabaster F. 2003. Estimation de la production laitière des lapines à partir de la croissance des lapereaux . In

Proc.: 10èmes Journ. Rech. Cunicole. INRA-ITAVI, 19-20 novembre, 2003. Paris, France. 69-72.

Gomez E.A., Rafel O., Ramon J., Baselga M., 1999. Feeding efficiency in crossbreeding among three of the strains selected in Spain. Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes, 41: 153-158.

Komender P., Hoeschele I. 1989. Use of Mixed-Model Methodology to Improve Estimation of Crossbreeding Parameters. Livest. Prod. Sci., 21: 101-113. doi: 10.1016/0301-6226(89)90042-0.

Larzul C., Rochambeau H. de 2004. Comparison of ten rabbit lines of terminal males for growth, feed efficiency and carcass traits. Anim. Res., 53: 535-545. doi: 10.1051/animres:2004032.

Larzul C., Gondret F. 2005. Aspects génétiques de la croissance et de la qualité de la viande chez le lapin. INRA, Prod. Anim., 18: 119-129.

Lebas F., Ouhayoun J. 1987. Incidence du niveau protéique de l’aliment, du milieu d’élevage et de la saison sur la croissance et les qualités bouchères du lapin. Ann. Zootech., 36: 421-432. doi: 10.1051/animres:19870406.

Lukefahr S., Hohenboken W.D., Cheeke P.R., Patton N.M. 1983. Appraisal of nine genetic groups of rabbits for carcass and lean yield traits. J. Anim. Sci., 57: 899-907.

Medellin M.F., Lukefahr S.D., 2001. Breed and heterotic effects on post weaning traits in Altex and New Zealand White straightbred and crossbred rabbits. J. Anim. Sci., 79: 1173-1178.

Nofal R., Szendro Zs., Kenessey A., Jensen J.E. 2004. Crossbreeding effects on carcass traits at 12 weeks of age in Pannon and Danish white rabbits and their reciprocal crosses. In Proc.: 8th World Rabbit Congress, 7-10 September, 2004.

Puebla, Mexico. 102-109.

Ollivier L., Henry Y. 1978. Variations génétiques de l’efficacité alimentaire chez le porc en croissance. Interaction avec les conditions nutritionnelles. Ann. Génét. Sél. Anim., 10: 191-208. doi: 10.1186/1297-9686-10-2-191.

Orengo J., Gomez E.A., Piles M., Rafel O., Ramon J. 2004. Growth traits in simple crossbreeding among female and sire lines. In Proc.: 8th World Rabbit Congress, 7-10 September, 2004. Puebla, Mexico. 114-120.

Ouhayoun J. 1978. Etude comparative de races de lapins différant par le poids adulte. Thèse. Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc. Montpellier. 72 pp.

Ouyed A. 2009. Évaluation du rendement en carcasse, en muscle et du poids des différentes parties des lapins de lignées pures et hybrides. Rapport final déposé au Conseil pour le développement de l’agriculture du Québec et au Ministère de l’Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l’Alimentation du Québec, 84 pp.

Ouyed A., Brun J.M. 2008. Heterosis, direct and maternal additive effects on rabbit growth and carcass characteristics. In Proc.: 9th World Rabbit Congress, 10-13 June, 2008. Verona, Italy. 195-200.

Ouyed A., Lebas F., Lefrançois M., Rivest J., 2007. Performances de reproduction des lapines de races pures (Néo-Zélandais Blanc, Californien et Géant Blanc du Bouscat) et des croisés, en élevage assaini au Québec. In Proc.: 12èmes Journ. Rech. Cunicole, INRA-ITAVI, 27-28 novembre, 2007. Le Mans, France.

Ozimba C.E., Lukefahr S.D. 1991. Evaluation of purebred and crossbred rabbits for carcass merit. J. Anim. Sci., 69: 2371-2378.

Pascual M., Pla M. 2007. Changes in carcass composition and

meat quality when selecting rabbits for growth rate. Meat Sci., 77: 474-481. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.04.009.

Piles M., Rafel O., Ramon J., Gomez E.A. 2004. Crossbreeding parameters of some productive traits in meat rabbits. World Rabbit Sci., 12: 139-148.

Prayaga K.C., Eady S.J. 2003. Performance of purebred and crossbred rabbits in Australia: Individual growth and slaughter traits. Aust. J. Agr. Res., 54: 159-166. doi: 10.1071/AR02106.

SAS. 2002. SAS version 9.1.3 SAS Inst. Inc. Cary, NC.

Abstract Views

1506
Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


 

Cited-By (articles included in Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

1. A study of growth and some blood parameters in Czech rabbits
Eva Tůmová, Miloslav Martinec, Zdenek Volek, Helena Härtlová, Darina Chodová, Zuzana Bízková
World Rabbit Science  vol: 21  issue: 4  year: 2013  
doi: 10.4995/wrs.2013.1320



 

 Universitat Politècnica de València

 

Official journal of the World Rabbit Science Association (WRSA)

 

e-ISSN: 1989-8886     ISSN: 1257-5011   https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs