Study on the nutrient adequacy of feeds for pet rabbits available in the Italian market

R. Ricci, A. Sartori, C. Palagiano, A. Dalle Zotte

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the proximate composition and nutritional adequacy of six complete commercial feeds for pet rabbits available in the Italian market. Wide variability was observed in the chemical composition of the complete feeds selected. Two feeds exceeded crude protein recommended level (172 g/kg and 182 g/kg), whereas 50% of the diets selected did not meet the minimal crude fibre requirements of 130 g/kg. The estimated digestible energy (DE) showed an oversupply in five feeds, attributable to high starch content (from 195 to 380 g/kg) in four of them. Fat levels resulted adequate in all feeds (between 10 and 50 g/kg), whereas a wide variability was observed in fatty acid (FA) composition. All feeds were deficient in phosphorus (<5 g/kg) and three of them also in calcium (<8 g/kg). All feeds were below the minimal vitamin E requirements (<40 mg/kg). One feed showed an aflatoxin B1 content of 11.36 μg/kg which is slightly higher than the European recommended maximum amount of 10 μg/kg. The six pet rabbit feeds obtained from the Italian market did not fulfil the nutrient requirements for pet rabbits and feeding animals with these products might produce detrimental health effects in the long term.

Keywords

Pet rabbit; complete feed; proximate composition; fatty acid profile; afatoxins

Full Text:

PDF

References

Anderson M., Fritsche K.L. 2002. (n-3) Fatty acids and infectious disease resistance. J. Nutr,. 132: 3566-3576.

AOAC 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed. Association Of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, Mariland, USA, 208772417.

Borgman R.G. 1966. The effect of feeding rabbits a vitamin E-low diet containing oleic acid. Am. J. Vet. Res., 27: 809-813.

Carabaño R., Villamide M.J., García J., Nicodemus N., Llorente A., Chamorro S., Menoyo D., García-Rebollar P., García-Ruiz A.I., De Blas J.C. 2009. New concepts and objectives for protein-amino acid nutrition in rabbits: a review. World Rabbit Sci., 17: 1-14.

Castellini C., Mourvaki E., Dal Bosco A., Galli F. 2007. Vitamin E Biochemistry and Function: a case study in Male Rabbit. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 42: 248-256.

De Blas J.C., Mateos G.G. 1998. Feed formulation. In: De Blas J.C., Wiseman J. (ed). The nutrition of the rabbit. CABI Publishing. Wallingford. UK. pp. 241-253.

European Community 2003. 2003/100/EC. Commission Directive 2003/100/EC of 31 October 2003 amending Annex I to Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed. Off. J. Eur. Union, L 285: 33-37.

Fernandes G. 2008. Progress in nutritional immunology. Immunol. Res., 40: 244-261.

Folch J., Lees M., Sloane Stanley G.H. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem., 226: 497-509.

García-Palomares J., Carabaño R., García-Rebollar P., De Blas J.C., Corujo A., García-Ruiz A.I. 2006. Effects of a dietary protein reduction and enzyme supplementation on growth performance in the fattening period. World Rabbit Sci., 14: 231-236.

Gidenne T. 2003. Fibres in rabbit feeding for digestive troubles prevention: respective role of low-digested and digestible fibre. Livest. Prod. Sci., 8: 105-117.

Harcourt-Brown F.M. 1996. Calcium deficiency, diet and dental disease in pet rabbits. Vet. Rec., 139: 567-571.

Harcourt-Brown F.M., Baker S.J. 2001. Parathyroid hormone, haematological and biochemical parameters in relation to dental disease and husbandry in rabbits. J. Small Anim. Pract., 42: 130136.

Harcourt-Brown F.M. 2002. Textbook of rabbit medicine. Oxford, UK, Butterworth Heinemann.

Harrenstien L. 1999. Gastrointestinal diseases of pet rabbits. J. Exotic Pet Med., 8: 83-89.

Irlbeck N.A. 2001. How to feed the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) gastrointestinal tract. J. Anim. Sci., 79 (E. Suppl.): 343-346.

ISO 1998. Animal feeding stuffs, animal products and faeces or urine. Determination of gross calorific value – Bomb calorimetric method. Reference number 9831.

ISTISAN report, 1996/34. 1996. Analytical method used in food chemical control. Baldini M., Fabietti F., Giammarioli S., Onori R., Orefice L., Stacchini A. (Eds.), pp. 265. © Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISSN 1123-3117. http://www.iss.it/binary/publ/cont/9634. pdf

Jenkins J.R. 1999. Feeding recommendations for the house rabbit. Vet. Clin. Exot. Anim., 2: 143-151.

Li J.J., Huang C.J., Xie D. 2008. Anti-obesity effects of conjugated linoleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 52: 631-645.

Lowe J.A. 1998. Pet rabbit feeding and nutrition. In: De Blas C., Wiseman J. (ed), The nutrition of the rabbit. CABI Publishing. Wallingford. UK. pp. 309-332.

Martino P.A., Luzi F. 2008. Bacterial infections in rabbit as companion animal: a survey of diagnostic samples in Italy. In Proc.: 9th World Rabbit Congress, 10-13 June, 2008. Verona, Italy. 1013-1018.

Mézes M., Balogh K. 2009. Mycotoxins in rabbit feed: a review. World Rabbit Sci., 17: 53-62.

Santomá G., De Blas J.C., Carabaño R., Fraga M.J. 1989. Nutrition of rabbits. In: Haresign W., Cole D.J.A. (ed.), Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Butterworths, London, 109-138.

Stroka J., Anklam E. 2000. Immunoaffinity column cleanup with liquid chromatography using post-column bromination for determination of aflatoxins in peanut butter, pistachio paste, fig paste, and paprika powder: collaborative study. J. AOAC Int., 83: 320-340.

Verma R.J., Mehta D.N. 1998. Occurance of hemolytic anemia during aflatoxicosis. Indian J. Environ. Toxicol., 8: 5-7.

Villamide M.J., Carabaño R., Maertens L., Pascual J.J., Gidenne T., Falcao-E-Cunha L., Xiccato G. 2009. Prediction of the nutritional value of European compound feeds for rabbits by chemical components and in vitro analysis. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 150: 283294.

Wangikar P.B., Dwivedi P., Sinha N., Sharma A.K., Telang A.G. 2005. Teratogenic effects in rabbits of simultaneous exposure to ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 with special reference to microscopic effects. Toxicology, 215: 37-47.

Abstract Views

1106
Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


 

Cited-By (articles included in Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

1. Body morphometric development during growth and maturity of coloured dwarf rabbits available in the Italian market
Antonella Dalle Zotte, Rebecca Ricci, Alberto Sartori, Steven Lukefahr, Gisella Paci
World Rabbit Science  vol: 21  issue: 4  year: 2013  
doi: 10.4995/wrs.2013.1386



 Universitat Politècnica de València

Official journal of the World Rabbit Science Association (WRSA)

e-ISSN: 1989-8886     ISSN: 1257-5011  https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs