Milk production of pseudopregnant multiparous does.

 Zs. Szendrő, Zs. Matics, G. Brecchia, M. Theau-Clément, Z. Nagy, Z. Princz, E. Biró-Németh, I. Radnai, I. Nagy


The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the milk production of pseudopregnant does. In this experiment, data of multiparous, inseminated, pregnant (IP, n=15) does and two groups of presumably pseudopregnant multiparous does: inseminated, non-pregnant (INP, n=17) and induced to ovulation by GnRH (1.5 μg per animal) at the day of insemination (11 d after parturition) (non-inseminated, ovulating: NIO, n=15) were analysed. The progesterone level was measured at the 12th d after treatment to determine if females were pseudopregnant. All IP and NIO does were pregnant and pseudopregnant, respectively. Within the INP group, 10 and 7 does were diagnosed as positive (INPO) or negative (INPNO) for pseudopregnancy. Two of the INPNO does perished during lactation. The average milk production of groups IP, INP and NIO was 212, 92 and 72 g/d, respectively (P<0.001). The proportion of rabbit does reaching daily milk yields of <10, 10-50, 50-100, 100-160, >160 g in the various groups were: IP=0, 0, 0, 0 and 100%, NIO=20, 13, 27, 40 and 0%, INP=15, 15, 15, 55 and 0%, respectively. The daily milk yield of the 5 INPNO does was 2, 6, 27, 84 and 139 g, respectively. These results demonstrated that multiparous empty does, pseudopregnant or non-pseudopregnant, can produce milk, but in lower quantities than multiparous does after kindling.


rabbits, pseudopregnant, milk production

Full Text:



Bejide O. R., Tadese M. A., Babajede D. E., Torimiro S. E., DariesAdetugbo A. A., Makanjuola R. O. 1997. Non puerperal induced lactation in a Nigerian community: case reports. Ann. Trop. Pediatr., 17: 109-114.

Boiti C., Canali C., Brecchia G., Zanon F., Facchin E. 1999. Effects of induced endometritis on the life-span of corpora lutea in pseudopregnant rabbits and incidence of spontaneous uterine infections related to fertility of breeding does. Theriogenology, 52: 1123-1132.

Boiti C, Canali C, Monaci M, Stradaioli G, Supplizi VA, Vacca C, Castellini C, Facchin E. 1996. Effect of postpartum progesterone levels on receptivity, ovarian response, embryo quality and development in rabbits. In Proc.: 6th World Rabbit Congress, 9-12 July, 1996. Toulouse. France. Vol., 2: 45-49.

Boiti C., Canali C., Zerani M., Gobbetti A. 1998. Changes in refractoriness of rabbit corpora lutea to a prostaglandin F2α analogue, alfaprostol, during pseudopregnancy. Prostaglandins, 56: 255-264.

Bourne R. A., Bryant J. A., Falconer I. R. 1974. Stimulation of DNA synthesis by prolactin in rabbit mammary tissue. J. Cell Sci., 14: 105-111.

Briehl W., Kulka W. 1935. Lactation in a virgin. Psychoanal. Quart., 4: 484-511.

Brown R. E. 1977. Relactation: An overview. Pediatr., 60: 116-120.

Concannon P.W., Verstegen J. 2005. Some unique aspect of canine and feline female reproduction important in veterinary practice. In Proc.: 3rd World Congress of the World Small Anim. Vet. Assoc. 1114 May 2005. Mexico City, Mexico.

Crell S.R., Monfort S.L., Wildt D.E., Waser P.M. 1991. Spontaneous lactation is an adaptive result of pseudopregnancy. Nature, 351: 660-662.

Dumon C., Dumoulin P. Y., Collet J. P. 1993. The suppression of lactation during canine pseudopregnancy using cabergoline. Prac. Med. Chir. Anim. Comp., 28: 573-577.

Egli G. E., Egli N. S., Newton M. 1961. The influence of the number of breast feedings on milk production. Pediatr., 27: 314.

Eiben Cs., Szendrő Zs., Allain D., Thebault R. G., Radnai I., Biróné Németh E., Lanszki J., 1996. Study on the performance of normal hair, angora and their reciprocal crossbred rabbits. 1. Components of litter size. In Proc.: 6th World Rabbit Congress, 9-12 July, 1996. Toulouse. France. Vol. 1: 339-343.

Falconer I. R., Vacek A. T. 1980. Hormone regulation of milk secretion. Proc. Nutr. Soc. Aust., 5: 90-95.

Forcada F., Abecia J. A., Ruiz C. 1992. Pseudopregnancy in rabbits: physiology and practical implications. Med. Vet., 9: 573-582.

Fortun-Lamothe L., Sabater F. 2003. Estimation de la production laitiére á partir de la croissance des laperaux. In Proc.: 10émes Journées de la Recherche Cunicole, 19-20 November 2003. Paris, ITAVI Ed., Paris, France, 69-72.

Gobello C., Concannon P.W., Verstegen J. 2001b. Canine pseudopregnancy: a review. In: Recent advances in small animal reproduction, Concannon P.W., England G., Verstegen J. (Eds.), Intern. Vet. Inform. Service, Ithaca, New York, USA

Gobello C., de la Sota R.L., Goya R.G. 2001a. A review of canine pseudocyesis. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 36: 283-286.

Hovey R.C., Trott J.F., Vonderhaar K. 2002. Establishing a framework for the functional mammary gland from endocrinology to morphology. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia, 7: 17-38.

König B. 1997. Cooperation care of young in mammals. Naturwissenschaften, 84: 95-104.

Lebas F., Coudert P., Rochambeau H. de, Thebault R.G. 1986. The rabbit husbandry, health and production. F.A.O., Rome, Italy

Linzell J. L., Peaker M., Taylor J. C. 1972. The effect of prolactin and oxytocin on milk secretion and on the permeability of the mammary epithelium in the rabbit. J. Physiol., 253: 547-563.

Maertens L., Lebas F., Szendrő Zs. 2006. Rabbit milk: a review of quantity, quality and non dietary affecting factors. World Rabbit Sci., 14: 205-230.

McNitt J. I. 1992. Endocrinological approaches for commercial rabbit production. J. Appl. Rabbit Res., 15: 364-397.

McNitt J. I., Lukefahr S. D. 1990. Effect of breed, parity, day of lactation and number of kits on milk production of rabbits. J. Anim. Sci., 68: 1505-1512.

Ming Hsiung Lu, Anderson R.R. 1973. Growth of the mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation in the rabbits. Biol. Reprod., 9: 538543.

Montagnese C.M., Poulain D.A., Vincent J.D., Theodosis D.T. 1987. Structural plasticity in the rat supraoptic nucleus during gestation, post-partum lactation and suckling-induced pseudogestation and lactation. J. Endocrinol., 115: 97-105.

Neville M.C. 2006. Lactation and its hormonal control. In: Knobil and Neill’s Physiology of Reproduction, 3rd Edition. Academic Press, San Diego. pp.: 2993-3054.

Neville M.C., McFadden T.B., Forsyth I. 2002. Hormonal regulation of mammary differentiation and milk secretion. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia, 7: 49-66.

Nordio Baldiserra C. 1980. Recent advances on rabbit physiology. In Proc.: 2nd World Rabbit Congress, 16-18 April, 1980. Barcelona, Spain. 1-60.

Pereira M.E., Izard M.K. 1989. Lactation and care for unrelated infants in forest-living ringtailed Lemurs. Am. J. Primatology, 18: 101-108.

Rood J.P. 1980. Mating relationship and breeding suppression in the dwarf mongoose. Anim. Behav., 28: 143-150.

Shin R. P. C., Friesen H. G. 1980. Mechanism of action of prolactin in the control of mammary gland function. Ann. Rev. Physiol., 42: 83-96.

Sobrinho L.G. 1998. Emotional aspects of hyperprolactinmia. Psychother Psychosom., 67: 133-139.

Sobrinho L.G. 2003. Prolactin, psychological stress and environment in humans: adaptation and maladaptation. Pituitary, 6: 35-39.

Svennersten-Sjaunja K., Olsson K. 2005. Endocrinology of milk production. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol., 29: 241-258.

Szendrő Zs., Gyarmati T., Maertens L., Radnai I., Biró-Németh E., Matics Zs., 2000. Trials to produce rabbit young nursed by two does. 1. Milk production of does and milk intake of young. World Rabbit Sci., 8: 453-460.

Szendrő Zs., Gyarmati T., Maertens L., Biró-Németh E., Radnai I., Milisits G., Matics Zs. 2002. Effect of nursing by two does on the performance of suckling and growing rabbits. Anim. Sci., 74: 117125.

Theau-Clément, M., Bolet, G., Roustan, A., Mercier, P. 1990. Comparaison de différents modes d’induction de l’ovulation chez les lapines multipares en relation avec leur stade physiologique et la réceptivité au moment de la mise à la reproduction. In Proc.: 5èmes Journ. Rech. Cunicole, Paris, France, ITAVI Ed., Tome I: Comm. 6.

Van der Shoot P., Lankhorst R.R., de Roo J. A., de Greef W. J. 1978. Suckling stimulus, lactation, and suppression of ovulation in the rat. Endocrinology, 103: 949-956.

Xiccato G., Trocino A., Sartori A., Queaque P. I., Brecchia G., Boiti C. 2004. Effect of reproductive rhytm and litter weaning age on the performance and body energy balance of rabbit does. In Proc.: 8th World Rabbit Congress, 7-10 September 2004, Puebla City, Mexico, 1029-1034.

Xiccato G., Trocino A., Boiti C., Brecchia G. 2005. Reproductive rhythm and litter weaning age as they affect rabbit doe performance and body energy balance. Anim. Sci., 81: 289-296.

Zöldág L., Benedek D., Kecskeméthy S. 1993. [Prevention of puerperal lactation and lactation caused by pseundopregnancy in the dog]. In Hungarian. Magy. Állatorv. Lapja, 360-364

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


Cited-By (articles included in Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

1. A Review on Mammary Tumors in Rabbits: Translation of Pathology into Medical Care
Schöniger, Degner, Jasani, Schoon
Animals  vol: 9  issue: 10  first page: 762  year: 2019  
doi: 10.3390/ani9100762


 Universitat Politècnica de València


Official journal of the World Rabbit Science Association (WRSA)


e-ISSN: 1989-8886     ISSN: 1257-5011