Nutritive value of sun-dried grape pomace, incorporated at a low level in complete feed for the rabbit bred under Magrebian conditions

D. Guemour, C. Bannelier, A. Dellal, T. Gidenne


The nutritive value and potential use of sun-dried grape pomace (g/kg as fed: 140 of crude protein (CP), 529 of neutral detergent fi bre (NDF), 460 acid detergent fi bre , 293 acid detergent lignin) for fattening rabbits was studied by comparing 3 experimental diets containing a low but increasing incorporation rate of grape pomace (GP): 0% (control, GP0), 3% (GP3), and 6% (GP6) in substitution to the control diet (251 g NDF and 175 g CP/kg) formulated with raw materials available in the area of Tiaret (Algeria): barley, wheat bran and straw, soybean meal and faba bean. Three groups of 30 rabbits (individually caged) were fed ad libitum the three diets from weaning (35 d, mean weight 460±83 g) to 77 d of age. The dry matter digestibility was obtained from total and individual faecal collection on all animals (3 x 30), during four consecutive days each week from 42 to 77 d of age. Then, faeces from 10 rabbits per group were selected for nutrient analyses. Intake and weight gain were recorded twice a week during the whole fattening period. Incorporating 3 or 6% of GP in a low fi bre diet impaired from 35 to 77 d growth rate (-8.8% for GP3 and GP6 vs. GP0, P<0.01), feed conversion (+8.5% for GP6 vs. GP0, P<0.01), and dressing out percentage (-2.5% for GP3 and GP6 vs. GP0, P<0.001). The digestibility of organic matter was linearly reduced from 72.8 to 70.0% with the GP incorporation rate (P<0.01), while crude protein digestibility remained unaffected and averaged 78.7%. The predicted nutritive value of sun-dried GP calculated by regression was high but highly variable for digestible energy (9.33±2.01 MJ DE/Kg, raw basis), and particularly for the digestible protein content (81.8±77.2 g DCP/kg). Thus, the sun-dried whole grape pomace could be considered as an alternative fibre source for the rabbit feeding in Magrebian area.


rabbit; grape pomace; growth; nutritive value

Full Text:



FNOR. 1997. Norme Française homologuée, Aliments des animaux. Détermination séquentielle des constituants pariétaux. Méthode par traitement aux détergents neutre et acide et à l’acide sulfurique. AFNOR publ., Paris. NF V 18-122, pp 11.

Baumgärtel T., Kluth H., Epperlein K., Rodehutscord M., 2007. A note on digestibility and energy value for sheep of different grape pomace. Small Ruminant Res., 67: 302-306.

Carabaño R., Fraga M.J. 1992. The use of local feeds for rabbits. Options Méditerranéennes. Série Séminaires, 17: 141-158.

De Blas C., Villamide M.J. 1990. Nutritive value of beet and citrus pulp for rabbits. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 31: 239-246.

De Blas J.C., Carabaño R. 1996. A review on the energy value of sugar beet pulp for rabbits. World Rabbit Sci., 4: 33-36.

EGRAN 2001. Technical note: attempts to harmonize chemical analyses of food and faeces, for rabbit feed evaluation. World Rabbit Sci., 9: 57-64

FEDNA 2003. Tablas FEDNA de composición y valor nutritivo de alimentos para la formulación de piensos compuestos (2ª ed.). In: De Blas J.C., Mateos G.G., Garcia-Rebollar P. (ed.) Fundación Española para el Desarrollo de la Nutrición Animal (FEDNA), Madrid, España.

Fernández-Carmona J., Cervera C., Blas E. 1996. Prediction of the energy value of rabbit feeds varying widely in fibre content. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 64: 61-75.

Fraga M.J., Pérez De Ayala P., Carabaño R., De Blas J. C. 1991. Effect of type of fibre on the rate of passage and on the contribution of soft feces to nutrient intake of finishing rabbits nutrient intake of finishing rabbits. J. Anim. Sci., 69: 1566-1574.

Gidenne T., 2000. Recent advances and perspectives in rabbit nutrition: Emphasis on fibre requirements. World Rabbit Sci., 8: 23-32.

Gidenne T., 2003. Fibres in rabbit feeding for digestive troubles prevention: respective role of low-digested and digestible fibre. Livest. Prod. Sci., 81: 105-117.

Gidenne T., Perez J.M. 1994. Apports de lignines et alimentation du lapin en croissance. I. Conséquences sur la digestion et le transit. Ann. Zootech., 43: 313-322.

Gidenne T., Arveux P., Madec O. 2001. The effect of the quality of dietary lignocellulose on digestion, zootechnical performance and health of the growing rabbit. Anim. Sci., 73: 97-104.

INRA. 2004. Tables de composition et de valeur nutritive des matières premières destinées aux animaux d’élevage: porc, volailles, bovins, ovins, caprins, lapins, chevaux, poissons. In: Sauvant D., Perez J.M., Tran G. (eds), 2ème Edition revue et corrigée. INRA Editions, Paris, 301p.

International Standarization Organization. 1998. Animal feeding stuffs, animal products, and faeces or urine - Determination of gross calorific value. Bomb calorimeter method. Norme international ISO 9831. Available at:

International Standarization Organization. 1999. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of moisture and other volatile matter content. Norme international ISO 6496. Available at:

International Standarization Organization. 2002. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of crude ash. Norme international ISO 5984. Available at:

International Standarization Organization. 2006. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fibre content (aNDF). Norme international ISO 16472. Available at: http://www.

International Standarization Organization. 2008. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents. Norme international ISO 13906. Available at:

International Standarization Organization. 2009. Food products. Determination of the total nitrogen content by combustion according to the Dumas principle and calculation of the crude protein content. Part 2: Cereals, pulses and milled cereal products. Norme international ISO 16634-2. Available at: http://www.iso. org.

Lakabi-Ioualitene D., Lounaouci-Ouyed G., Berchiche M., Lebas F., Fortun-Lamothe L. 2008. The effects of the complete replacement of barley and soybean meal with hard wheat by-products on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of a local Algerian rabbit population. World Rabbit Sci., 16: 99-106.

Lebas F. 2004. Reflections on rabbit nutrition with a special emphasis on feed ingredients utilization. In Proc.: 8th World Rabbit Congress, 7-10 September, 2004. Puebla, Mexico. 686-736.

Lebas F., Goby J.P.,2005. Valeur nutritive de la luzerne déshydratée à basse température chez le lapin en croissance. Première approche., 11ème Journées de la Recherche Cunicole, Paris. 201-204.

Maertens L., De Groote G. 1984. Digestibility and digestible energy content of a number of feedstuffs for rabbits. In Proc.: 3rd World Rabbit Congress, 4-8 April, 1984. Rome, Italy. 244-251

Maertens L., Perez J.M., Villamide M., Cervera C., Gidenne T., Xiccato G. 2002. Nutritive value of raw materials for rabbits: EGRAN tables 2002. World Rabbit Sci., 10: 157-166

Magnier L. 1991. Utilisation des sous-produits de la vigne dans l’alimentation animale. Options Méditerranéennes. Série Séminaires, 16: 89-99.

Martínez J., Fernández J. 1980. Composicion, digestibilidad, valor nutritivo y relaciones entre ambos de diversos piensos para conejos. In Proc.: 2nd World Rabbit Congress, 16-18 April, 1980. Barcelona, Spain. 214-223.

Motta Ferreira W., Fraga M.J., Carabaño R. 1996. Inclusion of grape pomace, in substitution for alfalfa hay, in diets for growing rabbits. Anim. Sci., 63: 167-174.

Nicodemus N., Carabaño R., García J., Méndez J., De Blas J.C. 1999. Performance response of lactating and growing rabbits to dietary lignin content. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 80: 43-54.

Parigi-Bini R., Chiericato G. M. 1980. Utilization of grape marc by growing rabbits. In Proc.: 2nd World Rabbit Congress, 16-18 April, 1980. Barcelona, Spain. 204-213.

Pérez de Ayala P., Fraga M.J., Carabaño R., De Blas J.C. 1991. Effect of fiber source on diet digestibility and growth in fattening rabbits. J. Appl. Rabbit Res., 14: 159-165.

Perez J.M., Lebas F., Gidenne T., Maertens L., Xiccato G., ParigiBini R., Dalle Zotte A., Cossu M.E., Carazzolo A., Villamide M.J., Carabaño R., Fraga M.J., Ramos M.A., Cervera C., Blas E., Fernàndez-Carmona J., Falcao E Cunha L., Bengala Freire J. 1995. European reference method for in-vivo determination of diet digestibility in rabbits. World Rabbit Sci., 3: 41-43.

Schurg W.A., Reed J.P., Reid B.L. 1980. Utilization of various fruit pomace products by growing rabbits. Nutr. Rep. Int., 21: 55-62.

Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B., Lewis B.A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 3583-3597.

Villamide M.J. 1996. Methods of energy evaluation of feed ingredients for rabbits and their accuracy. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 57: 211223.

Villamide M.J., Maertens L., Cervera C., Perez J.M., Xiccato G. 2001. A critical approach of the calculation procedures to be used in digestibility determination of feed ingredients for rabbits. World Rabbit Sci., 9: 19-26.

Villamide M.J., García J., Cervera C., Blas E., Maertens L., Perez J.M. 2003. Comparison among methods of nutritional evaluation of dietary ingredients for rabbits. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 109: 195-207.

Waghom G.C., Uyatt M.J., John A., Fisher M.T. 1987. The effect of condensed tannins on the site of digestion of amino acids and other nutrients in sheep fed on Lotus corniculatus L. Br. J. Nutr., 57:115.

Zerrouki N., Bolet G., Berchiche M., Lebas F. 2005. Evaluation of breeding performance of a local Algerian rabbit population raised in the Tizi-Ouzou area (Kabylia). World Rabbit Sci., 13: 29-37.

Zerrouki N., Kadi S.A., Lebas F., Bolet G. 2007. Characterisation of a kabylian population of rabbits in Algeria: birth to weaning growth performance. World Rabbit Sci., 15: 111-114

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


Cited-By (articles included in Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

World Rabbit Science  vol: 19  issue: 3  year: 2011  
doi: 10.4995/wrs.2011.848


 Universitat Politècnica de València


Official journal of the World Rabbit Science Association (WRSA)


e-ISSN: 1989-8886     ISSN: 1257-5011