As many of you have known, the investigations of biological functions of genes and proteins and their relationship with the pathogenesis of human diseases requires appropriate and relevant animal models. Although mice (wild and genetically modified) offer many possibilities, other non-murine species are required in many studies. Rabbit is one of these species. Rabbit is genetically and physiologically close to humans and has been extensively used in many aspects of biological studies and medical researches. During the last decade, many progresses in rabbit biotechnology including rabbit cloning, rabbit ES cells, and rabbit genome have been achieved and a specific biotechnology of the rabbit is emerging. The 3rd International Meeting on Rabbit Biotechnology was held in the famous ancient capital, Xi?an, China, June 4-5, 2009. This international forum was initiated by Prof. Fan J in Tsukuba, Japan, 2005 and the 2nd international symposium was successfully held in Jouy en Josas, France, 2007 by Prof. Houdebine LM. The two-day meeting provided opportunities of discussing and exchanging the state-of-the art information obtained from academic and industrial scientists in the world.