This review analyses the main factors of success of insemination as well as the methods suitable for oestrus induction in order to improve reproductive efficiency of rabbit does in term of fecundity (combining fertility and prolificacy). Parity, lactation status, pseudopregnancy as well as sexual receptivity at the time of insemination highly influence reproductive performance. Pseudopregnancy (ovulation non-induced by GnRH or mating) strongly depresses fertility, but its cause is still unknown. The routine use of eCG (or PMSG) on lactating does consistently increases the proportion of receptive does at the time of AI and, therefore, their long-term productivity, without any important side-effect. Applied just before insemination, different alternative methods have been studied: animal manipulation (a change of cage, does gathering), ?buck? effect, short damlitter separation, feeding programmes and light stimulations. Some of these methods improve the fecundity, but they sometimes also decrease kits growth (dam-litter separation, lighting programmes...). Consequently, for an optimal application in farms, it is important to consider long-term effects, such as global productivity and persistency of the effects. However, a better knowledge of the underlying physiological mechanisms would allow a better control of reproduction in rabbit farms.
Rabbit; insemination; oestrus induction; pseudopregnancy; eCG; biostimulations