Evaluation of calcium superphosphate as an additive to reduce gas emissions from rabbit manure

Fernando Estellés Barber, María Cambra López, Ana Isabel Jiménez Belenguer, Salvador Calvet Sanz


Techniques to reduce the emission of air pollutants from livestock production are demanded. In this study, the effect of an additive (calcium superphosphate) on gas emissions from rabbit manure was investigated and compared with a control where no additive was used. Calcium superphosphate was applied at a rate of 100 g/mper week in a manure pit during 2 cycles of growing rabbits. Manure samples were collected weekly and then chemically and microbiologically analysed. Gas emissions (ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) were determined in 2 open flux chambers. No differences were observed in gas emissions between the treated and control samples except for ammonia emissions, which were reduced by 33% when the additive was applied (P<0.05). No statistical differences were obtained in the microbial content between control and treatment, as results showed a high variability. Dry matter content and pH were the most influential parameters on the emission of gases from manure. According to these results, the application of calcium superphosphate may be considered as an effective technique to reduce ammonia emission from rabbit manure. The additive may also be potentially effective in other species, but additional research is necessary to investigate its performance.


microbiology; gas balance; NH3; CO2; N2O; CH4

Full Text:



Amon M., Dobeic M., Misselbrook T.H., Pain B.F., Phillips V.R., Sneath R.W., 1995. A farm-scale study on the use of De-Odorase® for reducing odour and ammonia emissions from intensive fattening piggeries. Bioresource Technol 51, 163-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0960-8524(94)00107-C

AOAC, 2000. Official Methods of Analysis, 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, USA.

Burton C.H., Turner C., 2003. Manure Management: Treatment strategies for sustainable agriculture. Lister & Durling Printers. Silsoe, Bedford, UK. 451 pp.

Calvet S., Estellés F., Hermida B., Blumetto O. And Torres A., 2008. Experimental balance to estimate efficiency in the use of nitrogen in rabbit breeding. World Rabbit Sci 16, 205-211.

Calvet S., Cambra-López, M., Estellés, F., Torres, A.G. 2011. Characterisation of the indoor environment and gas emissions in rabbit farms. World Rabbit Sci., 19:49-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2011.802

Carrizo J., 2003. Equilibrio en la flora intestinal del conejo. Boletín de Cunicultura 129, 323-326 [In Spanish].

CIGR, 2002. Climatization of animal houses. Heat and moisture production at animal and house levels (eds. Pedersen S. and Sälvik K.). Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Horsens, Denmark. 46 pp.

Delaune P.B., Moore P.A., Daniel T.C., Lemunyon J.L., 2004. Effect of chemical and microbial amendments on ammonia volatilization from composting poultry litter. J Environ Qual 33, 728-734. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2004.7280

Espinoza Y., Hernández Z.M.J., Barrera C.T.V., Obispo N.E., 2009. Efecto de la alimentación animal sobre la calidad microbiológica de estiércoles usados como fertilizantes. Zootecnia Trop 27, 151-161. [In Spanish].

Estellés F., Calvet S., Blumetto O., Rodríguez-Latorre A.R., Torres A.G., 2009. Technical Note: A flux chamber for measuring gas emissions from rabbits. World Rabbit Sci 17, 169-179.

FAO, 2014. Statistics on animal production data. Food and Agriculture Organization. Available at: http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx. Accessed July 2014.

Heber A.J., Ni J.Q., Lim T.T., Diehl C.A., Sutton A.L., Duggirala R.K., Haymore B.L., Kelly D.T., Adamchuk V.I., 2000. Effect of a manure additive on ammonia emission from swine finishing buildings. Trans ASAE 43, 6, 1895-1902 http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.3094

Khalil M.H., Baselga M., 2002. Rabbit genetic resources in Mediterranean countries. CIHEAM Serie B: Etudes et recherches No. 38. Zaragoza, Spain.

Kiwull-Schöne H., Kalhoff H., Manz F., Kiwull P., 2005. Food mineral composition and acid-base balance in rabbits. Eur J Nutr 44, 499-508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-005-0553-z

Krupa S.V., 2003. Effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on terrestrial vegetation: a review. Environ Pollut 124, 179-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00434-7

Li H., Xin H., Burns R.T., Liang Y., 2006. Reduction of ammonia emission from stored poultry manure using additives: Zeolite, Al+ clear, Ferix-3 and PLT. 2006 ASABE Annual International Meeting. Portland, Oregon, July 9-12. pp. 1-15.

Mccrory D.F., Hobbs P.J., 2001. Additives to reduce ammonia and odor emissions from livestock wastes: a review. J Environ Qual 30, 345-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2001.302345x

Michl R., Hoy S., 1996. Results of continuous measuring of gases in rabbit keeping by using multigas-monitoring. Berliner Munchener Tierarztl Wochenschr 109, 340-343.

Roney N., Llados F., Little S.S., Knaebel D.B., 2004. Toxicological Profile of ammonia. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, GA, USA. 269 pp.

SAS, 2001. User’s guide: statistics (Release 9.2). SAS® Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA.

Snoek D.J.W., Stigter J.D., Ogink N.W.M., Groot Koerkamp P.W.G., 2014. Sensitivity analysis of mechanistic models for estimating ammonia emission from dairy cow urine puddles. Biosystems Engineering 121, 12-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2014.02.003

Solomon S., Qin D., Manning M., Alley R.B., Berntsen T., Bindoff N.L., Chen Z., Chidthaisong A., Gregory J.M., Hegerl G.C., Heimann M., Hewitson B., Hoskins B.J., Joos F., Jouzel J., Kattsov V., Lohmann U., Matsuno T., Molina M., Nicholls N., Overpeck J., Raga G., Ramaswamy V., Ren J., Rusticucci M., Somerville R., Stocker T.F., Whetton P., Wood R.A., Wratt D., 2007. Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 91 pp.

Tate R. L. 2000. Soil Microbiology. 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 508 pp.

UN/ECE, 1999. Control Options/Techniques for Preventing and Abating Emissions of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds. EB.AIR/ WG.5/1999/8. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE), Geneva. 132 pp.

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


Cited-By (articles included in Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

1. Organic matter and nitrogen balance in rabbit fattening and gaseous emissions during manure storage and simulated land application
Elio Dinuccio, Davide Biagini, Roberta Rosato, Paolo Balsari, Carla Lazzaroni
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment  vol: 269  first page: 30  year: 2019  
doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.09.018


 Universitat Politècnica de València


Official journal of the World Rabbit Science Association (WRSA)


e-ISSN: 1989-8886     ISSN: 1257-5011   https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs