Effects of heat stress and age on growth performance and endocrine status of male rabbit

 G.M. Chiericato, C. Boiti, C. Canali, C. Rizzi, L. Ravarotto

Abstract

The effect of environmental temperature and age on plasma hormonal concentrations of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT}, cortisol (C), triiodothyronine (T3} and thyroxine (T4) were evaluated in 40 male Grimaud rabbits. Twenty animals were reared at 20ºC (TNT º = Thermic Neutrality Temperature) and the other 20 at 27 C (HST = Heat Stress Temperature). Far both treatments relative humidity levels averaged 77 % and the photoperiod was 8D:16L with a light intensity of about 40 lux. The animals were fed ad libitum with a commercial pelleted feed. Blood samples were collected from each ammal by intracardiac puncture at 71 and 85 days of age. No interaction effect between temperature and age was found. With regard to effect of temperature, the HST animals had a lower (P<0.01) final body weight (2325 vs 2555 g), daily gain (32. 7 vs 38.1 g) and feed intake (106 vs 126 g/d). The HST treatment significantly (P< 0.05) decreased plasma levels of T (1.01 vs 1.96 ng/ml, DHT (0.42 vs 0.73 ng/ml) and T + DHT (1.43 vs 2.66 ng/ml, but not the T/DHT ratio (2.69). TNT animals had higher (P<0.01) plasma levels of T3 (1.30 vs 1.01 ng/ml) and a lower (P<0.01) T 4/T3 ratio (32. 7 vs 41.3). The concentrations of C (18.9 ng/ml} and r 4 (41.0 ng/ml) resulted unchanged. The etfect of age in the older rabbits was a significantly higher (P<0.01) final body weight (2698 vs 2181 g) daily intake (123 vs 109 g) and feed/gain ratio (3.44 vs 3.12 g/g). No significant difference was observed in plasma concentrations of T (1.48 ng/ml), DHT (0.58 ng/ml), T/DHT (2.69) and T + DHí (2.05 ng/ml} in 71 and 85 days old rabbits. Age had no effect on C levels, which averaged 19.0 ng/ml. In blood samples of younger and older rabb1ts there was no difference in T3 (1.16 ng/ml}, T4 (41.0 ng/ml} values and T4/T3 ratio (37.0). Correlations and linear regression equations were also calculated far daily gain (DG}, digestible energy intake per unit of metabolic body weight (DET/MBW) and each hormone plasma level. Only the thyroid hormones showed significant correlations: T3 was positively (P<0.01) correlated with DG (r = 0.624) and DEI/MBW


Full Text:

PDF

References

BERGER M., CHAZAUD J., JEAN-FAUCHER CH., DE TURCKHEIM M., VEYSSIERE G., JEAN C., 1976. Developmental patterns of plasma and testicular testosterone in rabbits from birth to 90 days of age. Biol. Reprod., 15, 561-564. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod15.5.561

BERGER M., CORRE M., JEAN-FAUCHER CH., DE TURCKHEIM M., VEYSSIERE G., JEAN C., 1979. Changes in the testosterone to dihydrotestosterone ratio in plasma and testes of maturing rabbits. Endocrinology, 5, 1450-1454. https://doi.org/10.1210/endo-104-5-1450

BERGER M., JEAN-FAUCHER CH., DE TURCKHEIM M., VEYSSIERE G., BLANC M.R., POIRIER J.C., JEAN C., 1982. Testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in plasma rabbit from birth to adulthood. Correlation with sexual and behavioural development. Acta Endocrinologica, 99, 459-465. https://doi.org/10.1530/acta.0.0990459

BLAKENEJ A.B., MUTTON L.L., 1980. A single colorimetric method for the determination of sugars of fruit and vegetables. J. Sci. Prod. Agric., 31, 889-896. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740310905

BOITI C., CHIERICATO G.M., FILOTTO U., CANALI C., 1992. Effects of high environmental temperature on plasma testosterone, cortisol, T3 and T4 levels in the growing rabbit. In : Proc. Vth World Rabbit Congress, Oregon State University, Corvallis, vol. 1, 447-455.

CHIERICATO G.M., 1984. Influenza del livello nutritive sulla concentrazione periferica di alcuni ormoni androgeni nel coniglio. In : Proc. IIrd World Rabbit Congress, Roma, Vol.}, 287-293.

CHIERICATO G.M., RAVAROTTO L., RIZZI C., 1992. Effetto dell'eta sul profilo metabolico del coniglio in accrescimento di razza Nuova Zelanda Bianca. In : Atti XL VI Convegno Nazionale S.IS. Vet., Venezia.

CIGR, 1994. Commission Internationale du Génie Rural. Aerial environment in animal housing. Concentrations in and emissions from farm buildings. Working Group Report, series 94.1, p31.

FEKETE S., RUDAS P., 1988. Serum thyroid hormone levels and outer-ring monodeiodonation of thyroxine in rabbits treated with different amounts of perchloric acid ammonia (PAA). In Proc. 4th World Rabbit Congress, Budapest, vol. 2, 434-440.

HARVEY W.R., 1990. LSMLMW. PC 2 Version. Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program. Department of Diary Science, Ohio State University, Colombus, Ohio.

HILLIARD J.H., DAJNARD T.B, 1984. Linch content, test weight and other quality parameters of corn produced in different maturity areas of Ontario. Crop. Sci, 14, 546-548. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1974.0011183X001400040015x

KIRKWOOD R.N, EVANS F.D., AHERNE F.X., 1988. Influence of age, weight and growth rate on basal LH, growth hormone and cortisol, and oestrogen-induced LH release in prepubertal gilts. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 67, 4, 1001-1010. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas87-105

KUHN E.R., DECUYPERE E., COLEN L.M., MICHELS H., 1982. Posthatch growth and development of a circadian rhythm for thyroid hormones in chicks incubated at different temperatures. Poultry Sci., 3, 540-549. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0610540

LEENSTRA F.R., DECUYPERE E., BEUVING G., BUYSE J., BERGHMAN L., HERREMANS M., 1991. Concentrations of hormones, glucose, triglycerides and free fatty acids in the plasma of broiler chickens selected for weight gain or food conversion. British Poultry Sci., 32, 619-632. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669108417387

MARTILLOTTI G., ANTONGIOV ANNI M., RIZZI L., SANTI G ., BITT ANTE G ., 1987. Metodi di analisi degli alimenti di impiego zootecnico. Quaderni Metodologici n º8, 1.P.R.A., C.N.R., Roma.

MC CAULEY l., HARTMANN P.E., 1984. Changes in piglet leucocytes, B limphocytes and plasma cortisol from birth to three weeks after weaning. Research in Veterinary Science, 37, 1, 234-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-5288(18)31912-X

MOOR B.C., YOUNGLAI E.V., 1975. Variations in peripheral levels of LH and testosterone in adult male rabbits. J. Reprod. Fert., 42, 259-266. https://doi.org/10.1530/jrf.0.0420259

MORERA P., KUZMINSKY G., FINZI A., 1991. Effetto della manipolazione su alcuni parametri fisiologici del coniglio sottoposto a stress termico. Coniglicoltura, 28 (10), 39-41.

PARIGI-BINI R., DALLE RIVE V., 1977. Metodi di stima del valore nutritivo dei mangimi concentrati per conigli in accrescimento. Coniglicoltura, 14 (2/3), 33-40.

PARIGI-BINI R., XICCATO G., CINETTO M., DALLE ZOTTE A., CONVERSO R., 1992. Effetto dell'eta, del peso di macellazione e del sesso sulla qualita della carcassa e della carne cunicola. 1 - Rilievi di macellazione e qualita della carcassa. Zoot. Nutr. Anim., 18, 157-172.

RAFAI P., NEUMANN R., LEONHARDT W., FRENYO L., RUDAS P., FODOR L., BOROS G., 1988. Effect of environmental temperature on pigs infected with Pasteurella multocida type A. Pig News and Inf 9,830.

ROWE P.H., HOPKINSON C.N.R., SHENTON J.C., GLOVER T.D., 1976. The secretion of LH an testosterone in the rabbit. Ann. Breed. Abstr., 44, 2910.

SINURAT A.P., BALNAVE D., Me DOWELL G.H., 1988. Growth performance and concentrations of thyroid hormones and growth hormone in plasma of broilers at high temperatures. Nutr. Abstr. Rev., 58, 4108.

TRAMMEL T.L., STALLCUP 0.T., HARRIS G.C., DANIELS L.B., RAKES J.M., 1989. Effects of high temperature on certain blood hormones and metabolites and on reproduction in rabbit does. J. Appl. Rabbit Research, 12, 101-102."

VERDE M.P., PIQUER J.G., 1986. Effect of stress on the corticosterone and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content of the blood plasma of rabbits. J. Appl. Rabbit Res., 9, 181-185.

Abstract Views

806
Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


 

Cited-By (articles included in Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

1. Behavioral Activities, Physiological Body Reactions, Hematological Parameters and Hormonal Profiles for Bucks of New Zealand White and Baladi Red Rabbits Exposed to Short Term of High Temperature
Hassan A. Khalil, Mohamed A. Yaseen, Akrum M.M. Hamdy
Asian Journal of Poultry Science  vol: 9  issue: 4  first page: 191  year: 2015  
doi: 10.3923/ajpsaj.2015.191.202



 

 Universitat Politècnica de València

 

Official journal of the World Rabbit Science Association (WRSA)

 

e-ISSN: 1989-8886     ISSN: 1257-5011   https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs