Mange in farmed rabbits

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2024.20624

Keywords:

rabbit mange, animal welfare, disease prevention, one health

Abstract

In this study we determined occurrence of mange in breeding rabbits on 1368 commercial farms in Portugal and Spain during 1996-2022. We obtained our information by carrying out 11 737 visits to 1334 doe farms, 11 farms only with growers, and 23 artificial insemination (AI) centres. The median size of the visited doe farms was 450 does (minimum to maximum: 100–2500 does) and 1175 does (ranging from100 to 6000 does) in 1996 and 2022, respectively. AI was used on 9% of the farms visited in 1996 and 95% in 2022. For our diagnoses we used (1) clinical observations on all visited farms to detect sarcoptic mange; (2) examination of the outer ear of breeding rabbits on a subset of farms to assess the prevalence of otodectic clinical mange (OCM); and (3) the examination of breeding rabbits and youngstock does (2.5 to 5.5 mo old) on a subset of 72 farms during 2018 to estimate prevalence of body mange compatible with cheyletiellosis. They were mainly clinical diagnoses, supported sometimes by a laboratorial confirmation. Over the course of the 27-yr clinical study, the cumulative incidence of sarcoptic mange was low; we recorded a total of 13 affected doe farms. The percentage of farms affected by OCM dropped from 55% in 1996 to 28% in 2022. OCM mean prevalence for the period 1996-2022 and 95% binomial confidence interval (CI) were 3.2% (95% CI [3.1-3.3%]), and 3.9% (95% CI [3.7-4.1%]) in does and bucks, respectively. We observed an improvement over time; the OCM yearly mean prevalence decreased from 7% in 1996 to 2.3% in 2022 in females and from 7.2% to 2.2% in males, respectively. This progress was compatible with the use of semen coming from AI centres; biosecurity measures and medical management also contributed. Genetic type was predisposing risk factor for OCM. Enabling risk factors were year and season (more affected in summer). Hair and skin disorders along the back, compatible with cheyletiellosis, were also assessed during 2018; we detected 50% of positive farms with various prevalence results in females, males or young does. In this study, we describe protocols observed in the control of benign and severe cases of mange in rabbitries, which included the use of ivermectin and synthetic acaricides. Ivermectin was used on 36% of doe farms visited during 2018-2022; we suggest that it should be used less often to lower its negative impact on the environment.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Luis F. de la Fuente, Universidad de León

Dep. de Producción Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria

Rosa Casais, Servicio Regional de Investigación y Desarrollo Agroalimentario (SERIDA)

Servicio Regional de Investigación y Desarrollo Agroalimentario (SERIDA), Centro de Biotecnología Animal

References

Arlian L.G., Kaiser S., Estes S.A., Kummel B. 1981. Infestivity of Psoroptes cuniculi in rabbits. Am. J. Vet. Res., 42: 1782-1784.

Arlian L.G., Morgan M.S. 2017. A review of Sarcoptes scabiei: past, present and future. Parasit. Vectors, 10: 297. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2234-1

Broom D.M., Fraser A.F. 2015. Welfare and behaviour in relation to disease. In: Domestic Animal Behaviour and Welfare, 5th Ed.; CABI: Wallingford, UK; Chapter 23; 237-246. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781780645391.0246

Bulliot Ch., Mentré V., Marignac G., Polack B., Chermette R. 2013. A case of atypical psoroptic mange in a domestic rabbit. J. Exot. Pet Med., 22: 400-404. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jepm.2013.10.003

Cardells J., Lizana V., Martí-Marco A., Lavín S., Velarde R., Rossi L., Moroni B. 2021. First description of sarcoptic mange in an Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis). Curr. Res. Parasitol. Vector Borne Dis., 1: 100021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpvbd.2021.100021

Casais R., Granda V., Balseiro A., del Cerro A., Dalton K.P., González R., Bravo P., Prieto J.M., Montoya M. 2016. Vaccination of rabbits with immunodominant antigens from Sarcoptes scabiei induced high levels of humoral responses and pro-inflammatory cytokines but confers limited protection. Parasit. Vectors, 9: 435. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1717-9

Chebet J. 2020. Prevalence, treatment options and risk factors associated with mange in central Kenya. PhD Thesis Univesity of Nairobi, Kenya, 123 pp. Available at http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/11295/153158. Accessed October 2023.

Chiron P., Doré A., Fortun-Lamothe L. 2022. Factors affecting French rabbit farmers’ adoption of pro-welfare innovations. World Rabbit Sci., 30: 249-265. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2022.17882

Christodoulopoulos G., Burriel A.R., Labrinidi S., Kritas S.K., 2001. Traditional rabbitries on the island of Crete in Greece: general outlook. World Rabbit Sci., 9: 135-139. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2001.456

Cohen S.R..1980. Cheyletiella Dermatitis. A Mite Infestation of Rabbit, Cat, Dog, and Man. Arch. Dermatol., 116: 435-437.

D’Ovidio D., Santoro D. 2013. Orodental diseases and dermatological disorders are highly associated in pet rabbits: a case–control study. Vet. Dermatol., 24: 531-e125. https://doi.org/10.1111/vde.12052

D’Ovidio D., Santoro D. 2014. Leporacarus gibbus infestation in client-owned rabbits and their owner. Vet. Dermatol., 25: 46-e17. https://doi.org/10.1111/vde.12089

De Blas I. 2006. WinEpi Software, Working in Epidemiology. Available online: WinEpi: Working IN EPIdemiology. Accessed October 2023.

De la Fuente L.F., Rosell J.M. 2012. Body weight and body condition of breeding rabbits in commercial units. J. Anim. Sci., 90: 3252-3258. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4764

Dik B., Uslu U., 2006. [Effects of lvermectin, Phoxim and Propetamphos + Cypermethrin Combination Against Sarcoptic Mange in New Zealand Rabbits]. (In Turkish, abstract in English). Vet. Bil. Derg., 22: 97-101. https://eurasianjvetsci.org/summary_en.php3?id=79

Divisha R. Soundararajan C., Arul Prakash M. 2020. Therapeutic management of concurrent Sarcoptic and Psoroptic mange infestation in rabbits. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud., 8: 1041-1043.

Fang F., 2016. Susceptibility to acaricides and genetic diversity of Sarcoptes scabiei from animals. PhD. Thesis, Université París-Est, France, 128 pp.

Flatt R.E., Wiemers J. 1976. A survey of fur mites in domestic rabbits. Lab. Anim. Sci., 26: 758-761.

Foley J., Serieys L.E.K., Stephenson N., Riley S., Foley C., Jennings M., Wengert G., Vickers W., Boydston E., Lyren L., Moriarty J., Clifford D.L., 2016. A synthetic review of notoedres species mites and mange. Parasitology, 143: 1847-1861. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182016001505

Gupta R.C., Anadón A. 2018. Fipronil. Chap 42 in: Veterinary Toxicology. Basic and Clinical Principles. Gupta R.C. (Ed.), 3rd Ed., Academic Press, London U.K., 533-538. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811410-0.00042-8

Harkness J.E., Turner P.V., VandeWoude S., Wheler C.L. 2010. Harkness and Wagner’s Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents, 5th Ed.; Wiley-Blackwell: Ames, IA, USA.

Harvey R.G. 1990. Demodex cuniculi in dwarf rabbirs (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J. Small Anim. Pract., 31: 204-207. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.1990.tb00774.x

Huneau-Salaün A., Bougeard S., Balaine L., Eono F., Le Bouquin S., Chauvin C. 2015. Husbandry factors and health conditions influencing the productivity of French rabbit farms. World Rabbit Sci., 23: 27-37. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2015.3076

Kirwan A.P., Middleton B., McGarry J.W., 1998. Diagnosis and prevalence of Leporacarus gibbus in the fur of domestic rabbits in the UK. Vet. Rec., 142: 20-21. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.142.1.20

Kraus A. L. 1974. Arthropod parasites. in: The Biology of the laboratory rabbit. Weisbroth S.H., Flatt R.E., Kraus A.L. (Eds.), 1st Ed., Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY, USA, Ch 12, 287-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-742150-6.50017-7

Larkin D.J. Tjeerdema R.S. 2000. Fate and effects of diazinon. (Abstract). Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 166: 49-82.

Lumaret J.-P., Errouissi F., Floate K. Römbke J., Wardhaugh K. 2012. A review on the toxicity and non-target effects of macrocyclic lactones in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol., 13: 1004-1060. https://doi.org/10.2174/138920112800399257

Low R.C. 1911. An investigation into scabies in laboratory animals. J. Pathol. Bacteriol., 15: 333-357. https://doi.org/10.1002/path.1700150309

Mancinelli E., Lennox A.M. 2017. Management of otitis in rabbits. J. Exot. Pet. Med., 26: 63–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jepm.2016.10.009

Marine D. 1924. The cure and prevention of ear canker in rabbits. Science, 60: 158. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.60.1546.158.a

Meana A. (1999). Parasitosis cutáneas (del conejo). Ch 41 in: Parasitología Veterinaria. Cordero M., Rojo F.A. Eds. McGraw-Hill Interamericana, Madrid, Spain, 477-450.

Millán J., Casáis R., Delibes-Mateos M., Calvete C., Rouco C., Castro F., Colomar V., Casas-Díaz E., Ramírez E., Moreno S., Prieto J.M., Villafuerte R. 2012. Widespread exposure to Sarcoptes scabiei in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain. Vet. Parasitol., 183: 323-329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.046

Mullen G.R., OConnor B.M. 2019. Mites (Acari), in: Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Mullen G.R. Durden L.A., (Eds), 3rd Ed.; Academic Press, London, UK. Chap 26, 533-602. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814043-7.00026-1

Niedringhaus K.D., Brown J.D., Sweeley K.M., Yabsley M.J. 2019. A review of sarcoptic mange in North American wildlife. IJP: Parasites and Wildlife, 9: 285-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2019.06.003

Noordhuizen J.P.T.M., Metz J.H.M. 2005. Quality control on dairy farms with emphasis on public health, food safety, animal health and welfare. Livest. Prod. Sci., 94: 51-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.11.031

Osborne H.G. 1947. Dimethyl phthalate for the treatment of mange in rabbits caused by Notoedres Cati Var. Cuniculi. (Gerlach 1857). Aust. Vet. J., 24: 52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1947.tb04513.x

Otero L., Varela J.A., Espinosa E., Sánchez C., Junquera M.L., del Valle A., Vázquez F., 2004. Sarcoptes scabiei in a sexually transmitted infections unit - a 15-year study. Sex. Transm. Dis., 31: 761-765. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.olq.0000145853.35574.18

Pandey V.S., 1989. Effect of ivermectin on the ear mange mite Psoroptes cuniculi of rabbits. Br. vet. J., 145: 54-56. https://doi.org10.1016/0007-1935(89)90009-2

Panigrahi P.N., Mohanty B.N., Gupta A.R., Patra R.C., Dey S. 2016. Concurrent infestation of Notoedres, Sarcoptic and Psoroptic acariosis in rabbit and its management. J. Parasit. Dis., 40: 1091-1093. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0631-3

Radi Z.A., 2004. Outbreak of Sarcoptic Mange and Malasseziasis in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Comp. Med., 54: 434-437.

Rajamohanan K., Joy A.D. 1989. A note on mange caused by Notoedres cati in a rabbit colony in Kerala and its treatment with ivermectin. J. Appl. Rabbit Res., 12: 27-28.

Rosell J.M. 2003. Health status of commercial rabbitries in the Iberian peninsula. A practitioner’s study. World Rabbit Sci., 11: 157-169. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2003.505

Rosell J.M. 2023. Application systems for on-farm treatment against mange. Images. https://www.cunivetservice.com/wpcontent/uploads/2023/06/Mange.Farm_.Rabbits.Images.5th.June_.2023.pdf Accessed October 2023.

Rosell J.M., Pérez M.J. 1995. Resultados de gestión técnicoeconómica 1994. Cunicultura 114, 67-70.

Rosell J.M., de la Fuente L.F., 2009. Culling and mortality in breeding rabbits. Prev. Vet. Med., 88: 120-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2008.08.003

Rosell J.M., de la Fuente L.F. 2018. Mastitis on rabbit farms: prevalence and risk factors. Animals, 8: 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8060098

Rosell J.M., Dronda M.A., de la Fuente L.F. 2000. [Dermatology]. In: [Diseases of the rabbit], Rosell J.M. Ed., Vol II, Mundi-Prensa Libros S.A., Madrid, Spain, 355-398.

Rosell J.M., de la Fuente L.F., Carbajo M.T., Fernández X.M. 2020. Reproductive diseases in farmed rabbit does. Animals, 10, 1873. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101873

Rosell J.M., de la Fuente L.F., Parra F., Dalton K.P., Badiola Sáiz J.I., Pérez de Rozas A., Badiola Díez J.J., Fernández de Luco D., Casal J., Majó N., Casas J., Garriga R., Fernández Magariños X.M. 2019. Haemorrhagic disease: a 30-year study of the occurrence on commercial farms in Spain. Animals, 9, 780. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100780

Rosell J.M., de la Fuente L.F., Badiola J.I., Pérez de Rozas A., Fernández de Luco D., Arnal M.C., Casal J., Fernández X.M., Pinto de Carvalho A. 2023. Respiratory disorders of farmed rabbits: occurrence and risk factors. World Rabbit Sci., 31: 147-161. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2023.18280

SAS Institute 2004. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics, Version 9.1 SAS® SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Scott D.W., Miller W.H., Griffin C.E. 2001. Dermatoses of pet rodents, rabbits, and ferrets. In: Small Animal Dermatology (Muller & Kirk’s). 6th ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA, Chapter 21, 1415-1458. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7216-7618-0.50025-0

Shen N., Wei W., Chen Y., Liu S., Xiong L., Xiao J., Gu X., Xie Y., Xu J., Jing B., Peng X., Yang G. 2023. Vaccination with a cocktail vaccine elicits significant protection against Sarcoptes scabiei in rabbits, whereas the multi-epitope vaccine offers limited protection. Exp. Parasitol., 245: 108442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2022.108442

Tarazona J.V., Martínez M., Martínez M.A., Anadón A. 2021. Environmental impact assessment of COVID-19 therapeutic solutions. A prospective analysis. Sci. Total Environ., 778: 146257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146257

Thrusfield M. 2018. Patterns of disease. In: Veterinary Epidemiology, 4th Ed. John Wiley & Sons Ltd: West Sussex, UK, 168-188. ISBN: 978-1-118-28028-7.

Timm K.I. 1988. Pruritus in rabbits, rodents, and ferrets. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract., 18: 1077-1091. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-5616(88)50110-9

Turner P.V., 2018. Rabbits. In: Pathology of small mammal pets, Turner P.V., Brash M.L., Smith D.A., 1st Ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Howoke, NJ, USA, Chapter 1, 1-88.

Van Praag E., Maurer A., Saarony T. 2010. Skin diseases of rabbits. Medirabbit.com, Switzerland. XXI.

Varga M. 2022. Parasitic skin disease (Skin diseases). In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine, 3rd Ed., Elsevier, Chapter 8, 242-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-8403-4.00008-9

Wei W., Ren Y., Shen N., Song H., Xu J., Hua R., Zhang H., Angel C., Gu X., Kuang L., Xie Y., Peng X., Xie X., Yang G. 2019. Comparative analysis of host resistance to Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in two different rabbit breeds. Parasit. Vectors, 12: 530. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3764-5

White, S D., 2023. Rabbit dermatology, in: (Exotic Animal) Dermatology, D’Ovidio D., Santoro D. Eds. Vet. Clin. North Am. Exot. Anim. Pract., 26: 347-357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvex.2022.12.002

White S.D., Bourdeau P.J., Meredith A. 2002. Dermatologic problems of rabbits. Semin. Avian Exot. Pet Med., 11: 141-150. https://doi.org/10.1053/saep.2002.123982

Wilkins C.A., Conroy J.A., Ho P., O’Shanny W.J., Malatesta P.F. 1980. Treatment of psoroptic mange with avermectins. Am. J. Vet. Res., 41: 2112-2114.

Downloads

Published

2024-03-28

Issue

Section

Papers