Resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does: a review of feeding and genetic strategies for suitable performance

Juan José Pascual, Davi Savietto, Concha Cervera, Manuel Baselga


In the present work is analysed how frequent feeding and selection programmes could be affecting resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does, and the possible consequences resulted from these changes, as well as the central role of body condition for a suitable female performance considering genetic level, health and welfare.  Resources allocation between functions, and consequently body condition, must be genetically driven.  Traditional view of body reserves mobilisation in reproductive rabbit does as a response of feed intake must be moved to an animal view, where feed intake must be considered more as an “output” consequence of the resources allocation in the female to ensure current and future litter viability.  To a great extent, future reproductive potential of reproductive rabbit females is decided before first partum.  There seems to be enough evidence of a possible threshold for the rabbit female birth weight to reach the beginning of reproductive life in a suitable body condition to maximise their future reproductive potential.  The moment of first mating could be identified the last ‘pure’ data of the animal, sign of the animal soma and probably related to their productive potential.  The choice of an adequate feeding system during rearing and first pregnancy also seems to be relevant in the reproductive performance of rabbit females in the short and long term. This should allow young females to reach first mating and late pregnancy with a good maturity level, but over-fattening must be avoided to reduce the risk of pregnancy toxaemia and reduced reproduction.  The body condition of the females changes during the reproductive cycle and throughout their reproductive life according to their genetically determined level.  The problems appear when the animals are forced to differ from this adequate level, increasing susceptibility to disease, other stress factors and eventual failure.  The body condition of young rabbit females reaches the peak 10 days before kindling.  From this moment to kindling, reproductive rabbit does seem to suffer the highest mobilisation of body reserves, with the body condition showing the lowest level at partum.  Negative energy balances detected during lactation do not seem to have the strength of those observed in late pregnancy.  Genetic selection in rabbit by litter size at weaning has increased prolificacy but also the ability to obtain resources (more feed intake at the onset of lactation, better energy utilisation during pregnancy), without compromising the survival of rabbit females.  However, it could also have increased the sensibility of animals to the environment, addressing more the maternal investment to the future litter respect to the actual under restricted conditions to maximize their selection success “the number”. Rabbit does selected for reproductive longevity have a greater soma (body weight and body condition), which enables them to better cope with the possible productive challenges that they may meet in the course of their productive life.  There is also evidence that they have greater plasticity in using their soma, making them more robust to overcome demanding situations. In fact, the response to environment restriction of females coming from a line founded for reproductive longevity criteria was flatter than those obtained for females selected for litter size at weaning in all the traits controlled, highlighting their differences on robustness.  In addition, it seems to be evidence of a possible improvement of the immune system modulation in robust animals (lower sensitivity to immunological challenges), although further research effort must be done in the future to confirm this matter.


rabbit female; rearing management; genetic selection; nutrient partitioning; body condition

Full Text:



Abecia L., Fondevila M., Balcells J., McEwan N.R. 2007. The effect of lactating rabbit does on the development of the caecal microbial community in the pups they nurture. J. Appl. Microbiol., 103, 557-564.

Arias-Álvarez M., García-García R.M., Rebollar P.G., Nicodemus N., Revuelta L., Millán P., Lorenzo P.L. 2009. Effects of a lignin-rich fibre diet on productive, reproductive and endocrine parameters in nulliparous rabbit does. Livest. Sci., 123, 107-115.

Andersen J.B., Friggens N.C., Sejrsen K., Sørensen M.T., Munksgaard L., Ingvartsen K.L. 2003. The effects of low vs. high concentrate level in the diet on performance in cows milked two or three times daily in early lactation. Livest. Prod. Sci. , 81, 119-128.

Argente M.J., Santacreu M.A., Climent A., Blasco A. 1999. Phenotypic and genetic parameters of birth weight and weaning weight of rabbits born from unilaterally ovariectomized and intact does Livest. Prod. Sci., 57, 159-167.

Bauman D.E. 2000. Regulation of nutrient partitioning during lactation: homeostasis and homeorhesis revisitied. In Ruminant physiology: digestion, metabolism, growth and reproduction (ed. P.B. Cronjé), pp. 311-328. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Baselga M., Blasco A. 1989. Mejora genética del conejo de producción de carne. Mundiprensa, Madrid, Spain.

Beilharz R.G. 1998. Environmental limit to genetic change. An alternative theorem of natural selection. J. Anim. Breed. Genet., 115, 433-437.

Bélanger C., Luu-The V., Dupont P., Tchernof A. 2002. Adipose tissue intracrinology: potential importance of local androgen/estrogen metabolism in the regulation of adiposity. Horm. Metab. Res., 34, 737-45.

Biró-Németh E., Szendrö Zs. 1990. Reproductive performance of does suckled in different size litters (in Hungarian). Proc. 2nd Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production, Kaspovar, Hungary, 47-51.

Bolet G., Fortun-Lamothe L., 2002. Relationship between body condition and reproductive performances in rabbit does. Proceedings of 3rd Meeting of Workgroups 3 and 4. COST Action 848, Ispra, Italy, 24-25 October, Comm. no. 23.

Brandt H., von Brevern N., Glodek P. 1999. Factors affecting survival rate of crossbred sows in weaner production. Livest. Prod. Sci., 57, 127-135.

Brecchia G., Bonanno A., Galeati G., Federici C., Maranesi M., Gobbetti A., Zerani M., Boiti C. 2006. Hormonal and metabolic adaptation to casting: Effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and reproductive performance of rabbit does. Domest. Anim. Endocrin., 31, 105-122.

Broster W.H., Broster V.J. 1998. Body score of dairy cows. J. Dairy Res., 65, 155-173.

Camacho J., Baselga M. 1990. Genetic correlation between reproductive and growth traits in rabbits. In Proc.: 4th World Congress on Genetics Applied to the Livestock Production, Edinburgh, Scotland, vol. 16, 366-369.

Carabaño R., Badiola I., Licois D., Gidenne T. 2006. The digestive ecosystem and its control through nutritional or feeding strategies. In: recent Advances in Rabbit Sciences. Ed. Maertens L., Coudert P. ILVO, 211-228.

Carabaño R., Badiola I., Chamorro S., García J., García-Ruiz A.I., García-Rebollar P., Gomez-Conde M.S., Gutiérrez I., Nicodemus N., Villamide M.J., de Blas J.C. 2008. New trends in rabbit feeding: Influence of nutrition on intestinal health. Spanish J. Agri. Res., 6, 15-25.

Carabaño R., Villamide M.J., García J., Nicodemus N., Llorente A., Chamorro S., Menoyo D., García-Rebollar P., García-Ruiz A.I., De Blas J.C. 2009. New concepts and objectives for protein-amino acid nutrition in rabbits: a review. World Rabbit Sci., 17, 1-14.

Castellini C., Dal Bosco A., Cardinali R. 2006. Effect of post-weaning rhythm on the body fat and performance of rabbit does. Reprod. Nutr. Dev., 46, 195-204.

Chilliard Y. 1986. Variations quantitatives et métabolisme lipides dans les tissus adipeux et le foie au cours du cycle gestation-lactation. 1ere partie: chez la ratte. Reprod. Nutr. Dev., 26, 1057-1103.

Chilliard Y. 1987. Variations quantitatives et métabolisme des lipides dans les tissus adipeux et le foie au cours du cycle gestation-lactation. 2eme partie: chez la brebis et la vache. Reprod. Nutr. Dev., 27, 327-398.

Damgaard L.H., Rydhmer L., Lovendahl P., Grandinson K. 2003. Genetic parameters for within-litter variation in piglet birth weight and change in within-litter variation during suckling. J. Anim. Sci., 81, 604-610.

De Greef K.H., Janss L.L.G., Vereijken A.L.J., Pit R., Gerritsen C.L.M. 2001. Disease-induced variability of genetic correlations: Ascites in broilers as a case study. J. Anim. Sci., 79, 1723-1733.

De Vries MJ, Veerkamp RF. 2000. Energy balance of dairy cattle in relation to milk production variables and fertility. J Dairy Sci., 83, 62-69.

Dourmad J.Y., Etienne M., Prunier A., Noblet J. 1994. The effect of energy and protein-intake of sows on their longevity: a review. Livest. Prod. Sci., 40, 87-97.

Du Plessis S.S., Cabler S., McAlister D.A., Sabanegh E., Agarwal A. 2010. The effect of obesity on sperm disorders and male infertility. Nat. Rev. Urol., 7; 153-61.

Estany J., Villalba D., Tibau J., Soler J., Babot D., Noguera J.L. 2002. Correlated response to selection for litter size in pigs: I. Growth, fat deposition, and feeding behaviour traits. J. Anim. Sci., 80, 2556-2565.

Fernández-Carmona, J., Santiago, S., Alqedra, I., Cervera, C., Pascual, J. J. 1998. Effect of lucerne-based diets on the reproductive performance of rabbit does at high temperatures. World Rabbit Sci., 6, 227-242.

Ferrian S., Guerrero I., Blas E., García-Diego F.J., Viana D., Pascual J.J., Corpa J.M. 2012. Effect of high temperature on blood lymphocyte populations in two different genetic rabbit lines. Vet. Immunol. Immunop., (in press).

Fortun-Lamothe L. 1997. Effects of dietary fat on reproductive performance of rabbit does: A review. World Rabbit Sci., 5, 33-38.

Fortun-Lamothe L. 2006. Energy balance and reproductive performance in rabbit does. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 93, 1-15.

Fortun L., Lebas F. 1994. Effets de l'origine et de la teneur en energie de l'aliment sur les performances de reproduction de lapines primipares saillies post partum. Premiers resultats. Proc. 6èmes Journées de la Recherche Cunicole, La Rochelle, France, 285-292.

Friggens N.C. 2003. Body lipid reserve and the reproduction cycle: towards a better understanding. Livest. Prod. Sci., 83, 219-236.

Friggens N.C., Newbold J.R. 2007. Towards a biological basis for predicting nutrient partitioning: the dairy cow as an example. Animal, 1, 87-97.

Frisch R.E. 1980. Pubertal adipose tissue: is it necessary for normal sexual maturation? Evidence from the rat and human female. Fed. Proc., 39, 2395-2400.

Gagliostro G., Chilliard Y. 1991. Duodenal rapeseed oil infusion in early and midlactation dairy cows. 2. voluntary intake, milk production, and composition. J. Dairy Sci., 74, 499-509.

García M.L., Baselga M. 2002a. Estimation of genetic response to selection in litter size of rabbits using a cryopreserved control population and genetic trends. Livest. Prod. Sci., 74, 45-53.

García M.L., Baselga M. 2002b. Estimation of correlated response on growth traits to selection in litter size of rabbits using a cryopreserved control population and genetic trends. Livest. Prod. Sci., 78, 91-98.

García, J., Pérez-Alba, L., Álvarez, C. R. Rocha, R., Ramos, M., De Blas, J. C. 1995. Prediction of the nutritive value of lucerne hay in diets for growing rabbit. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 54, 33-44.

García J., Gómez-Conde M.S., Chamorro S., Nicodemus N., De Blas J.C., Carabaño R., Pérez de Rozas A., Badiola I. 2005. Poyecto INIA sobre enteropatía mucoide: resultados sobre las investigaciones en nutrición. Proc. XXX Symposium de Cunicultura, Valladolid, Spain, 157-165.

García-Ximénez F., Vicente J.S., Cifre P., Baselga M. 1996. Foundation of a maternal rabbit line using hysterectomy and embryo cryopreservation. Proc. 6th World Rabbit Congress, Toulouse, France, 285-288.

Garnsworthy P.C., Topps J.H. 1982. The effect of body condition of dairy cows at calving on their food intake and performance when given complete diets. Anim. Prod., 35, 113-119.

Garreau H., Szendro Zs., Larzul C., Rochambeau H. de. 2000. Genetic parameters and genetic trends of growth and litter size traits in the White Pannon breed, In Proc.: 7th World Rabbit Congress, Valencia, 4-7 July 2000, Spain, Vol. A, pp. 403-408.

Garreau H., Larzul C., Ducrocq V. 2001. Analyse de longévité de souche de lapins INRA 1077. Proc. 9émes Journées de la Recherche Cunicole, Paris, France, 217-220.

Garreau H., Piles M., Larzul C., Baselga M., Rochambeau H. de. 2004. Selection of maternal lines: last results and prospects. In Proc.: 8th World Rabbit Congress, Puebla, Mexico, September 2004. pp 14-25.

Gidenne T., García J. 2006. Nutritional strategies improving the digestive health of the weaned rabbit. In: Maertens L., Coudert P. (Ed.), Recent advances in rabbit sciences. ILVO, Merelbeke, Belgium, 211-227.

Glazier D.D. 2009. Trade-offs. In: Resource allocation theory applied to farm animal production (ed. WM Rauw), pp. 44-60. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.

Gómez E., Rafel O., Ramón J., Baselga M. 1996. A genetic study on a line selected on litter size at weaning. Proc. 6th World Rabbit Congress. Toulouse. France, 2, 289-292.

Gomez E.A., Rafel O., Ramon J. 1998. Genetic relationships between growth and litter size traits at first parity in a specialized dam line, In Proc.: 6thWorld Cong. Genet. Appl. Livest. Prod., 11-16 January 1998, Vol. 25, University of New England, Armidale, pp. 552-555.

Gosling L.M., Baker S.J., Wright K.M.H. 1984. Differential investment by female Coypus (Myocastor coypus) during lactation. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 51, 273-300.

Guerrero I., Ferrian S., Blas E., Pascual J.J., Cano J.L., Corpa J.M. 2010. Evolution of the peripheral blood lymphocyte populations in multiparous rabbit does with two reproductive management rhythms. Vet. Immunol. Immunop., 140, 75-81.

Gunn R.G., Sim D., Hunter E.A. 1995. Effects of nutrition in utero and in early life on the subsequent lifetime reproductive performance of Scottish Blackface ewes in two management systems. Anim. Sci., 60, 223-230.

Hammoud A.O., Gibson M., Peterson C.M., Meikle A.W., Carrell D.T. 2008. Impact of male obesity on infertility: a critical review of the current literature. Fertil Steril., 90, 897-904.

Holl J.W., Robison O.W. 2003. Results from nine generations of selection for increased litter size in swine. J. Anim. Sci., 81, 624-629.

Jørgensen B., Sørensen M.T. 1998. Different rearing intensities of Giles: II. Effects on subsequent leg weakness and longevity. Livest. Sci., 54, 167-171.

Khalil M.H., Baselga M. 2002. Rabbit genetic resources in Mediterranean countries. Options Méditerranéennes. Série B. Etudes et Recherches; n. 38. CIHEAM-IAMZ. Zaragoza. Spain. 262 pp.

Kirkwood B.L., Austad S.N. 2000. Why do we age? Nature, 408, 233-238.

Knap P.W. 2005. Breeding Robust Pigs.' Aust. J. Exp. Agr., 45, 763-773.

Knap P.W., Rauw W.M. 2009. Selection for high production in pigs. In: Resource allocation theory applied to farm animal production (ed. WM Rauw), pp. 210-229. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.

Lampo P., Van der Broeck L. 1975. The influence of heritability of some breeding parameters and the correlation between parameters with rabbit. Archiv. Geflugelkunde, 39, 208-211.

Larzul C., Gondret F., Combes S., Rochambeau H., de. 2005. Divergent selection on 63-day body weight in the rabbit: response on growth, carcass and muscle traits. Genet. Sel. Evol., 37, 105-122.

Lebas, f. 2000. Biología (Biology). In: Rosell J.M. (Ed.), Enfermedades del conejo. Chapter 1, vol.I. Mundi-Prensa Libros S.A., Madrid, 55-126.

Lebas F., Laplace J. P., Droumenq P. 1982. Effets de la teneur en énergie de l'aliment Chez le lapin. Variations en fonction de l'age des animaux et de la sécuence des régimes alimentaires. Ann. Zootech., 31, 233-256.

Liu G., Dunnington E.A., Siegel P.B. 1995. Correlated responses to long-term divergent selection for eight-week body weight in chickens: growth, sexual maturity, and egg production. Poultry Sci., 74, 1259-1268.

López-Serrano M., Reinsch N., Looft H., Kalm E. 2000. Genetic correlation of growth, perirenal fat thickness and exterior with stayability in Large White and Landrace sows. Livest. Prod. Sci., 64, 121-131.

Lynch M., Walsh B. 1998. Genetics and analysis of quantitative traits. Sinauer Associates Inc.

Maertens L. 1992. Rabbit nutrition and feeding: a review of some recent developments. J. Appl. Rabbit Res., 15, 810-818.

Martin O., Sauvant D. 2010. A teleonomic model describing performance (body, milk and intake) during growth and over repeated reproductive cycles throughout the lifespan of dairy cattle. 1. Trajectories of life function priorities and genetic scaling. Animal, 4, 2030-2047.

Martínez Paredes E. 2008. Efecto de diferentes modelos de alimentación para recría y gestación de conejas nulíparas sobre su vida productiva. Master Thesis. Master in Animal Production. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Spain, 14 pp.

Martínez Paredes E., Savietto D., Ródenas L., Arias J.M., Domingues V.S., de Jesus M.E., Llorens J., Lavara R., Vicente J.S., Pascual J.J. 2009. Effect of development until rearing on seminal parameters in bucks. Proc. XXXV Symposium de Cunicultura, Segovia, Spain, pp. 5.

McEvoy T,G., Robinson J.J. 2003. Nutrition and its interaction with reproductive processes. In: Holt W.V., Pickard A.R., Rodger J.C., Wildt D.E. (Ed.), Reproductive science and integrated conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 42-56.

McNamara J.M., Houston A.I. 1990. The value of fat reserves and the trade-off between starvation and predation. Acta Biotheor., 38, 37-61.

Mocé M.L., Santacreu M.A., Climent A., Blasco A. 2004. The effect of divergent selection for uterine capacity on fetal and placental development at term in rabbits: Maternal and embryonic genetic effects. J. Anim. Sci., 82, 1046-1052.

Mocé M.L., Santacreu M.A. 2010. Genetic improvement of litter size in rabbits. Proc. 9th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Leipzig, Germany, 8 pp.

Moschos S., Chan J.L., Mantzoros C.S. 2002. Leptin and reproduction: a review. Fertil. Steril., 77, 433-444.

Moura A.S.A.M.T., Kaps M., Vogt D. W., Lamberson W. R. 1997. Two-way selection for daily gain and feed conversion in a composite rabbit population. J. Anim. Sci., 75, 2344-2349.

Mysterud A., Steinheim G., Yoccoz N.G., Holand Ø., Stenseth N.C. 2002. Early onset of reproductive senescence in domestic sheep, Ovis aries. Oikos, 97, 177-183.

Nagai J., Lin C.Y., Sabour M.P., 1995. Lines of mice selected for reproductive longevity. Growth Develop. Aging, 59, 79-91.

Nicodemus N., García J., Carabaño R., De Blas J.C. 2007. Effect of substitution of a soybean hull and grape seed meal mixture for traditional fiber sources on digestion and performance of growing rabbits and lactating does. J. Anim. Sci., 85, 181-187.

Nielsen H.M., Friggens N.C., Løvendahl P., Jensen J., Ingvartsen K.L. 2003. Influence of breed, parity, and stage of lactation on lactational performance and relationship between body fatness and live weight. Livest. Prod. Sci., 79, 119-133.

Nizza A., Di Meo C., Esposito L. 1997. Influence of the diet used before the first mating on reproductive performance of rabbit does. World Rabbit Sci., 5, 107-110.

Noordwijk A.J., de Jong G. 1986. Acquisition and allocation of resources: their influence on variation in life history tactics. Am. Nat., 128, 137-142.

NRC. 1989. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. National Research Council. 6th Edition. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA. 157 pp.

O'Dowd S., Hoste S., Mercer J.T., Fowler V.R., Edwards S.A. 1997. Nutritional modification of body composition and the consequences for reproductive performance and longevity in genetically lean sows. Livest. Prod. Sci., 52, 155-165.

Oftedal O.T. 2000. Use of maternal reserves as a lactation strategy in large mammals. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 59, 99-106.

Orengo J., Piles M., Rafel O., Ramon J., Gómez E.A. 2009. Crossbreeding parameters for growth and feed consumption traits from a five diallel mating scheme in rabbits. J. Anim. Sci., 87, 1896-1905.

Parigi-Bini R., Xiccato G., Cinetto M. 1990. Energy and protein retention and partition in pregnant and non-pregnant rabbit does during the first pregnancy. Cuni-Sciences, 6, 19-29.

Parigi-Bini R., Xiccato G., Dalle Zotte A., Castellini C., Stradaioli G. 1996. Effect of remating interval and diet on the performance and energy balance of rabbit does. Proc. 6th World Rabbit Congress, Toulouse, France, 1, 253-258.

Partridge G.G. 1986. Meeting the protein and energy requirement of the commercial rabbit for growth and reproduction. Proc. 4th World Congress of Animal Feeding, Madrid, Spain, Vol. IX, 271-556.

Partridge L., Fowler K. 1992. Direct and correlated responses to selection on age at reproduction in Drosophila Melanogaster. Evolution, 46, 76-91.

Pascual, J. J. 2004. Animal and feeding factors affecting voluntary feed intake of reproductive rabbit does. Proc. 55th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. Bled. Slovenia, 10, 176.

Pascual J.J. 2006. Nutrition-reproduction-body condition of rabbit does considering rabbit selection for litter size and longevity. Alpharma Rabbit Symposium¸Madrid, Spain, 27 pp.

Pascual J. J., Cervera C., Blas E., Fernández-Carmona J. 1998. Effect of the high fat diets on the performance and food intake of primiparous and multiparous rabbit does. Anim. Sci., 66, 491-499.

Pascual J.J., Tolosa C., Cervera C., Blas E., Fernández-Carmona J. 1999. Effect of diets with different digestible energy content on the performance of rabbit does. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 81, 105-117.

Pascual J.J., Cervera C., Fernández-Carmona J., 2000. The effect of dietary fat on the performance and body composition of rabbits in their second lactation. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 86, 191-203.

Pascual J.J., Cervera C., Fernández-Carmona J. 2002a. Feeding program for young rabbit does base don all lucerne diets. World Rabbit Sci., 10, 7-13.

Pascual J.J., Motta W., Cervera C., Quevedo F., Blas, E., Fernández-Carmona J. 2002b. Effect of dietary energy source on the performance and perirenal fat thickness evolution of primiparous rabbit does. Anim. Sci., 75, 267-279.

Pascual J. J., Cervera C., Blas E., Fernández-Carmona J. 2003. High energy diets for reproductive rabbit does: effect of energy source. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews. Series B: Livestock Feeds and Feeding, 73(5), 27R-39R.

Pascual J.J., Xiccato G., Fortun-Lamothe L. 2006. Strategies for doe's corporal condition improvement - relationship with litter viability and carrer length. In: Maertens L., Coudert P. (Ed.), Recent advances in rabbit sciences. ILVO, Merelbeke, Belgium, 247-258.

Pascual M., Pla M. 2007. Changes in carcass composition and meat quality when selecting rabbits for growth rate. Meat Sci., 77, 474-481.

Pereda N.L. 2010. Evaluación de la técnica del análisis de impedancia bioeléctrica para predecir la composición corporal: aplicación en conejas sometidas a diferentes sistemas de alimentación durante la recría. Ph.D. Thesis. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. Spain, 196 pp.

Piles M., Tusell L. 2011. Genetic correlation between growth and female and male contributions to fertility in rabbit. J. Anim. Breed. Genet., doi:10.1111/j.1439-0388.2011.00975.x

Piles M., Gomez E.A., Rafel O., Ramon J., Blasco A. 2004. Elliptical selection experiment for the estimation of genetic parameters of the growth rate and feed conversión ratio in rabbits. J. Anim. Sci, 82, 654-660.

Poigner, J., Szendrö, Zs., Lévai, A., Radnai, I., Biró-Németh, E. 2000. Effect of birth weight and litter size on growth and mortality in rabbits. World Rabbit Sci., 8, 17-21.

Quevedo F., Pascual J.J., Blas E., Cervera C., 2003. Influencia de la madre sobre el crecimiento y la mortalidad de los gazapos en cebo. Proc. XXVIII Symposium de Cunicultura, Alcañiz, Teruel, Spain, 115-122.

Quevedo F., Cervera C., Blas E., Baselga M., Costa C., Pascual J.J., 2005. Effect of selection for litter size and feeding programme on the performance of young rabbit females during rearing and first pregnancy. Anim. Sci. 80, 161-168.

Quevedo F., Cervera C., Blas E., Baselga M., Pascual J.J. 2006a. Long-term effect of selection for litter size and feeding programme on the performance of reproductive rabbit does. 1. Pregnancy of multiparous does. Anim. Sci., 82, 739-750.

Quevedo F., Cervera C., Blas E., Baselga M., Pascual J.J. 2006b. Long-term effect of selection for litter size and feeding programme on the performance of reproductive rabbit does. 2. Lactation and growing period. Anim. Sci., 82, 751-762.

Randi E., Scossiroli R. E. 1980. Genetic analysis of production traits in Italian New Zealand White and California pure-bred populations. In Proc: 2nd World Rabbit Cong., Barcelona, Spain. 1,192-201.

Rauw W.M., Kanis E., Noordhuizen-Stassen E.N., Grommers F.J. 1998. Undesirable side effects of selection for high production efficiency in farm animals: a review. Livest. Prod. Sci., 56, 15-33.

Revell D.K., Williams I.H., Mullan B.P., Smits R.J. 1994. Body fatness influences voluntary feed intake and live weight loss during lactation in primiparous sows. J. Anim. Sci., 72 (Suppl. 1), 389.

Reznick D., Nunney L., Tessier A. 2002. Big houses, big cars, superfleas and the costs of reproduction. Trends Ecol. Evol., 15, 421-425.

Rinaldo D., Bolet G. 1988. Effect of selection for litter size at weaning on reproductive life of female rabbits. Proc. 4th World Rabbit Congress, Budapest, Hungary, 1, 269-275.

Rochambeau, H., de., Bolet, G., Tudela, F., 1994. Long term selection. Comparison of two rabbit strains. In Proc.: 5th World Congress on Genetics applied to Livestock Production. Guelph, Canada, 257-260.

Rommers, J.M., Kemp, B., Meijerhof, R., Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M., 2001. Effect of litter size before weaning on subsequent body development, feed intake and reproductive performance of young rabbit does. J. Anim. Sci., 79, 1973-1982.

Rommers J.M., Meijerhof R., Noordhuizen J.P.T.M., Kemp B. 2002. Relationships between body weight at first mating and subsequent body development, feed intake and reproductive performance of rabbit does. J. Anim. Sci., 80, 2036-2042.

Rommers J.M., Meijerhof R., Noordhuizen J.P.T.M., Kemp B. 2004a. Effect of feeding program during rearing and age at first insemination on performances during subsequent reproduction in young rabbit does. Reprod. Nutr. Dev., 44, 321-332.

Rommers J.M., Boiti C., Brecchia G., Meijerhof R., Noordhuizen J.P.T.M., E., Decuypere E. and Kemp B. 2004b. Metabolic adaptation and hormonal regulation in young rabbit does during long-term caloric restriction and subsequent compensatory growth. Anim. Sci., 79, 255-264.

Rosell J.M. 2000. Enfermedades de menor presentación. Enfermedades metabólicas. In: Enfermedades del conejo. Tomo II. (eds JM Rosell), pp.399-454. Mundiprensa, Madrid, Barcelona, México.

Rosell J.M. 2003. Health status of commercial rabbitries in the Iberian peninsula. A practioner's study. World Rabbit Sci., 11, 157-169.

Rosell J.M., de la Fuente L.F. 2009. Culling and mortality in breeding rabbits. Prev. Vet. Med., 88, 120-127.

Royal M.D., Pryce J.E., Woolliams J.A., Flint P.F. 2002. Genetic relationships between commencement of luteal activity postpartum and calving interval, production, body condition score and linear type traits in holstein-friesians. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, 30, 705-708.

Sánchez J.P., Baselga M., Ducrocq V. 2006. Genetic and environmental correlations between longevity and litter size in rabbits. J. Anim. Breed. Genet., 123, 180-185.

Savietto D. 2013. Environmental and genetic factors driving robustness in reproductive rabbit does. Ph.D. Thesis. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Spain.

Savietto D., Ródenas L., Martínez-Paredes E., Esteve J.M., Villalba C., Fabre C., Blas E., Cervera C., Pascual J.J. 2010. Effect of birth weight and rearing diet on the development and reproduction of rabbit does. Proc. XXXV Symposium de Cunicultura, Segovia, Spain, pp. 5.

Savietto D., Ródenas L., Martínez-Paredes E., Martínez-Vallespín B., García-Diego F.J., Fernández C., Pascual J.J., Blas E., Cervera C. 2011. Origen genético de la conejas, condiciones ambientales de lactancia y superviviencia de gazapos en el cebadero . Proc. XXXVI Symposium de Cunicultura, Peñíscola, Castellón, Spain, 65-68.

Savietto D., Martinez-Paredes E., Ródenas L., Baselga M., Cervera C., Blas E., Pascual J.J. 2012. Rearing diet strategy and productive longevity of crossbreed rabbit does. Proc. 10th World Rabbit Congress, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, pp. 4.

Schinkel A.P., Richert B.T., Frank J.W., Kendall DC 1999. Genetic by environmental interactions for pig growth. Purdue. Swine Day Report, pp. 93-103.

Serenius T., Stalder K.J. 2004. Genetics of length of productive life and lifetime prolificacy in the Finish Landrace and Landrace and Large White pig populations. J. Anim. Sci., 82, 3111-3117.

Short T.H., Lawlor T.J. 1992. Genetic parameters of conformation traits, milk yield, herd life in Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci., 75, 1987-1998.

Siegel P.B., Honaker C.F., Rauw W.M. 2009. Selection for high production in poultry. In: Resource allocation theory applied to farm animal production (ed. WM Rauw), pp. 230-242. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.

Sigfridson K. 1996. Feeding for longevity - Strategies for pregnant and lactating sows. Proc. NJF-seminar no. 265. Longevity of Sows. Research Centre Foulum, Denmark, 46-51.

Szendrő Zs., Gyarmati T., Maertens L., Biró-Németh E., Radnai I., Milisits G., Matics Zs. 2002. Effect of nursing by two does on the performance of suckling and growing rabbits. Anim. Sci., 74, 117-125.

Szendrő Zs., Gyovai M., Maertens L., Biró-Németh E., Radnai I., Matics Zs., Princz Z., Gerencsér Zs., Horn P. 2006. Influence of birth weight and nutrient supply before and after weaning on the performance of rabbit does to age of the first mating. Livest. Sci., 103, 54-64.

Tarrés J., Tibau J., Piedrafita J., Fábrega E., Reixach J. 2006. Factors affecting longevity in maternal Duroc swine lines. Livest.Sci., 100, 121-131.

Theau-Clément M. 2007. Preparation of the rabbit doe to insemination: a review. World Rabbit Sci., 15,61-80.

Theilgaard P. 2006. Prolificacy, reproductive longevity and body reserves in female rabbits examined using selection lines. Ph.D. Thesis. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Spain, 126 pp.

Theilgaard P., Sanchez J.P., Pascual J.J., Friggens N.C., Baselga M., 2006. Effect of body fatness and selection for prolificacy on survival of rabbit does. Livest. Sci., 103, 65-73.

Theilgaard P., Sánchez J.P., Pascual J.J., Berg P., Friggens N.C. Baselga M. 2007. Late reproductive senesce in a rabbit line hyper selected for reproductive longevity, and its association with body reserves. Genet. Select. Evol., 39, 207-223.

Theilgaard P., Baselga M., Blas E., Friggens N.C., Cervera C., Pascual J.J. 2009. Differences in productive robustness in rabbits selected for reproductive longevity or litter size. Anim., 3, 637-646.

Tholen E., Bunter K.L., Hermesch S., Graser H.U., 1996. The genetic foundation of fitness and reproduction traits in Australien pig populations 1. Genetic parameters for weaning to conception interval, farrowing interval, and stayability. Aust. J. Agr. Res., 47, 1261-1274.

Tibau J., Bidanal J.P., Reixach J., Soler N. 2003. Genetic relationship between litter traits, piglet growth and sow feed consumption and body reserves mobilization in Duroc pigs. Book of Abstracts of the 54th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, Rome, Italy.

Tudela, F., Hurtaud, J., Garreau, H., Rochambeau, H. 2003. Comparaison des performances zootechniques des femelles parentales issues d'une souche témoin et d'une souche sélectionnée pour la productivité numérique. Proc. 10émes Journées de la Recherche Cunicole, Paris, France, 53-56.

Van Noordwijk A. J., de Jong G., 1986. Acquisition and allocation of resources: Their influence on variation in life history tactics. American Naturalist, 128, 137-142.

Veerkamp R.F., Windig J.J., Calus M.P.L., Ouweltjes W., de Haas Y., Beerda B. 2009. Selection for high production in dairy cattle. In: Resource allocation theory applied to farm animal production (ed. WM Rauw), pp. 243-260. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.

Verdelhan S., Bourdillon A., David J.J., Huirtaurd J.J., Lédan L., Renouf B., Roulleau X., Salaun J.M. 2005. Comparison de deux programmes alimentaires pour la préparation des futures reproductrices. Proc. 11émes Journées de la Recherche Cunicole, Paris, France, 119-122.

Vernon R.G., Denis R.G.P., Sørensen A. 2001. Signals of adiposity. Domest. Anim. Endocrin., 21, 197-214.

Vollema A.R. 1998. Longevity of dairy cows: a review of genetic variances and covariances with conformation. Anim. Breed. Abstr., 66, 781-802.

Windig J.J., Calus M.P.L., Veerkamp R.F. 2005. Influence of herd environment on health and fertility and their relationship with milk production. J. Dairy Sci., 88, 335-347.

Wolf J., Zákova E., Groeneveld E. 2008. Within-litter variation of birth weight in hyperprolific Czech Large White sows and its relation to litter size traits, stillborn piglets and losses until weaning. Livest. Sci., 115, 195-205.

Xiccato G. 1996. Nutrition of lactating does. Proc. 6th World Rabbit Congress, Toulouse, France, 1, 29-47.

Xiccato G., Parigi-Bini R., Dalle Zotte A., Carazzolo A., Cossu M.E. 1995. Effect of dietary energy level, addition of fat and physiological state on performance and energy balance of lactating and pregnant rabbit does. Anim. Sci., 61, 387-398.

Xiccato G., Bernardini, M., Castellini, C., Dalle Zotte, A., Queaque, P.I., Trocino, A. 1999. Effect of postweaning feeding on the performance and energy balance of female rabbits at different physiological states. J. Anim. Sci.. 77,416-426.

Yakovlevaa T.V., Bazhana N.M., Makarovaa E.N. 1997. Effects of food deprivation in early pregnancy on the development of ovaries and adrenals in female progeny of the water vole (Arvicola terrestris). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 116C, No. 1, 103-109.

Yalcin S., Ozkan S., Turkmut L., Siegel P.B. 2001. Responses to heat stress in commercial and local broiler stocks. 1. Performance traits. Brit. Poultry Sci., 42, 149-152.

Yazdi M.H., Rhymer L., Ringmar-Cederberg E., Lundehein N., Johansson K. 2000a. Genetic study of longevity in Swedish Landrace sows. Livest. Prod. Sci., 63, 255-264.

Yazdi M.H., Lundehein N., Rhymer L., Ringmar-Cederberg E., Johansson K. 2000b. Survival of Swedish Landrace and Yorkshire sows in relation to osteochondrosis: a genetic study. Anim. Sci., 71, 1-9.

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


Cited-By (articles included in Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

1. Milk yield prediction at late lactation in reproductive rabbit does
Alberto Arnau-Bonachera, Concha Cervera, Enrique Blas, Juan José Pascual
World Rabbit Science  vol: 23  issue: 2  first page: 91  year: 2015  
doi: 10.4995/wrs.2015.3438

 Universitat Politècnica de València

Official journal of the World Rabbit Science Association (WRSA)

e-ISSN: 1989-8886     ISSN: 1257-5011