Oocyst excretion pattern of three intestinal Eimeria species in female rabbits

Cristiano Papeschi, Gianluca Fichi, Stefania Perrucci

Abstract

The dynamic change in faecal Eimeria oocyst excretion was evaluated in 10 naturally infected female rabbits, starting from their weaning at 33 d of age until about 1 mo after their second parturition. Faecal samples collected from examined animals were quali-quantitatively analysed to evaluate presence and number of Eimeria oocysts. In addition, isolated Eimeria oocysts were identified at the species level following sporulation. Animals were found to be infected by Eimeria perforans, Eimeria exigua and Eimeria magna and shed Eimeria oocysts after weaning and after parturition. In particular, at 33 d of age all female rabbits examined were negative, while the discharge of Eimeria oocysts started at 39th day of age and peaked between 46th and 53rd day of age. From 81-109 d of age until the first parturition and from 25 d of age of the litters born at the first parturition to the second parturition, all animals resulted negative. After parturition, Eimeria oocyst output occurred from 6th to 12th day after the first parturition and from 7th to 13th day after the second parturition, while a second period of oocyst excretion was observed from 18th to 24th day after both parturitions. These findings may indicate the existence of a relationship between the periparturient phase and Eimeria oocyst output and suggest an important role of the mothers in transmission of the infection to their litters.

Keywords

Eimeria; oocyst excretion pattern; weaning; periparturient phase; female rabbits

Full Text:

PDF

References

Associazione Nazionale Coniglicoltori Italiani. 2012. Razze Cunicole norme tecniche. Available at: http://www.anci-aia.org/documenti/scheda_43.pdf. Accessed 11 June 2012.

Bath T.K., Jithendram K.P., Kurade N.P. 1996. Rabbit coccidiosis and its control: a review. World Rabbit Sci., 4: 37-41. doi:10.4995/wrs.1996.269

Bruhn F.R.P., Lopes M.A., Demeu F.A, Perazza C.A., Pedrosa M.F., Guimarães A.M. 2011. Frequency of species of Eimeria in females of the holstein-friesian breed at the post-weaning stage during autumn and winter. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. V., 20: 303-307. doi:10.1590/S1984-29612011000400008

Castro-Hermida J.A., Delafosse A., Pors I., Ares-Mazás E., Chartier C. 2005. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum infections in adult goats and their implications for neonatal kids. Vet. Rec., 157: 623-627.

Coudert P. 1982. Coccidiose et diagnostic. Cuniculture 47, 245-248.

Coudert P., Licois D., Drouet-Viard F. 1995. Eimeria and Isospora. Eimeria species and strains of rabbits. In Eckert J., Braun R., Shirley M.W., Coudert P., (Ed). Biotechnology. Guidelines on Techniques in Coccidiosis Research. Office for official publications of the European communities. Luxembourg. 52-73.

Coudert P., Licois D., Zonnekeyn V. 2000. Epizootic rabbit entercolitis and coccidiosis: a criminal conspiracy. In Proc.: 7th World Rabbit Congress,7-4 July, 2000, Valence, Spain, 215-218.

Drouet-Viard F., Coudert P., Licois D., Boivin M. 1997.Vaccination against Eimeria magna coccidiosis using spray dispersion of precocious line oocysts in the nest box. Vet. Parasitol., 70: 61-66. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(96)01134-X

Eckert J., Taylor M., Catchpole J., Licois D., Coudert P, Bucklar H. 1995. Identification of Eimeria species and strains. Morphological characteristics of oocysts. In: Eckert J., R. Braun, M.W. Shirley, P. Coudert (Ed.), COST 89/820 Biotechnology. Guidelines on Techniques in Coccidiosis Research.Office for official publications of the European communities. Luxembourg, pp. 113-116.

Faber J.E., Kollmann D., Heise A., Bauer C., Failing K., Bürger H.J., Zahner H. 2002. Eimeria infections in cows in the periparturient phase and their calves: oocyst excretion and levels of specific serum and colostrum antibodies. Vet. Parasitol., 104: 1-17. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(01)00610-0

Gallazzi D. 1977. Cyclical variations in the excretion of intestinal coccidial oocysts in the rabbit. Folia Vet. Lat., 7: 371-380.

Glantz S.A. 2003a. Statistica per discipline biomediche. 5th rev. McGraw-Hill (ed), Milan, Italy.

Glantz S.A. 2003b. Statistica per discipline biomediche. McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l.

Gomez-Bautista M., Rojo-Vazquez F.A., Alunda J.M. 1987. The effect of host’s age on the pathology of Eimeria stiedai infection in rabbit. Vet. Parasitol., 24: 47-57. doi:10.1016/0304-4017(87)90129-4

Grès V., Marchandeau S., Landau I. 2002. Description d’une nouvelle espèce d’Eimeria (Coccidia, Eimeridea) chez le lapin de garenne Oryctolagus cuniculus en France. Zoosystema, 24: 203-207.

Grès V., Voza T., Chabaud A., Landau I. 2003. Coccidiosis of the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in France. Parasite, 10:51-57.

Gutiérrez J.F. 2003. Tratamientos y profilaxis de la coccidiosis en el conejo. Cunicultura, 4: 97-106.

Hobbs R.P., Twigg L.E., Elliot A.D., Wheeler A.G. 1999. Factors influencing the fecal egg and oocyst counts of parasites of wild European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.) in Southern Western Australia. J. Parasitol., 85: 796-802. doi:10.2307/3285813

Houdijk J.G.M., Kyriazakis I., Jackson F., Huntley J.F., Coop R.L. 2000. Can an increased intake of metabolizable protein affect the periparturient relaxation in immunity against Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep? Vet. Parasitol., 91: 43-

doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(00)00255-7

Kidane A., Houdijk J., Athanasiadou S., Tolkamp B. Kyriazakis I. 2010. Nutritional sensitivity of periparturient resistance to nematode parasites in two breeds of sheep with different nutrient demands. Brit. J. Nutr., 104: 1477-1486. doi:10.1017/S0007114510002503

Levine N.D., Ivens V. 1972. Coccidia of the Leporidae. J. Protozool., 19: 572-581.

Li M.H., Huang H.I., Ooi H.K. 2010. Prevalence, infectivity and oocyst sporulation time of rabbit-coccidia in Taiwan. Trop. Biomed., 27: 424-429.

Marai I.F.M., Askar A.A., McKroskey R.A., Tena E. 2010.

Replacement in rabbit herds. Trop. Subtrop. Agroecosyst., 12:431-444.

Nosal P., Petryszak A., Nowosad B., Sobolewska M. 2006. [Gastrointestinal parasites of rabbits in coproscopic investigations]. Wiad. Parazytol., 52: 327-330.

Ortega-Mora L.M., Requejo-Fernández J.A., Pilar-Izquierdo M., Pereira-Bueno J. 1999. Role of adult sheep in transmission of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum to lambs: confirmation of periparturient rise. Int. J. Parasitol., 29: 1261-1268.

doi:10.1016/S0020-7519(99)00077-6

Paklandl M. 2009. Coccidia of rabbit: a review. Folia Parasit., 56: 153-166.

Pakandl M., Hlásková L. 2007. The reproduction of Eimeria flavescens and Eimeria intestinalis in suckling rabbits. Parasitol. Res., 101: 1435-1437. doi:10.1007/s00436-007-0646-0

Pakandl M., Hlásková L., Poplštein M., Chromá V., Vodička T., Salát J., Mucksová J. 2008. Dependence of the immune response to coccidiosis on the age of rabbit suckling. Parasitol. Res.,103: 1265-1271. doi:10.1007/s00436-008-1123-0

Pellerdy L.P. 1974. Coccidia and Coccidiosis 2nd edition. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin, Germany.

Permin A., Hansen J. 1998. The epidemiology, diagnosis and control of poultry parasites. In: FAO Animal Health Manual. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Połozowski A. 1993. [Coccidiosis of rabbits and its control]. Wiad. Parazytol., 39: 13-28.

Taylor M.A., Coop R.L., Wall R.L. 2007. Veterinary Parasitology 3rd edition. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.

Turner W.C., Versfeld W.D., Kilian J.W., Getz W.M. 2012. Synergistic effects of seasonal rainfall, parasites and demography on fluctuations in springbok body condition. J. Anim. Ecol., 81:

-69. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2011.01892.x

Vereecken M., Lavazza A., De Gussem K., Chiari M., Tittarelli C., Zuffellato A., Maertens L. 2012. Activity of diclazuril against coccidiosis in growing rabbits: experimental and field experiences. World Rabbit Sci., 20: 223-230. doi:10.4995/wrs.2012.1232

Xiao L., Herd R.P., McClure K.E. 1994. Periparturient rise in the excretion of Giardia sp. cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts as a source of infection for lambs. J. Parasitol., 80:55-59. doi:10.2307/3283345

Abstract Views

3246
Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


 

Cited-By (articles included in Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

1. Prevalence, pathology and risk factors for coccidiosis in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in selected regions in Kenya
P.O. Okumu, P.K. Gathumbi, D.N. Karanja, J.D. Mande, M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri, N. Kiarie, R.N. Mwanza, D.K. Borter
Veterinary Quarterly  vol: 34  issue: 4  first page: 205  year: 2014  
doi: 10.1080/01652176.2014.978044



Official journal of the World Rabbit Science Association (WRSA)

© Universitat Politècnica de València. All rights reserved

© World Rabbit Science Associated. All rights reserved

e-ISSN: 1989-8886     ISSN: 1257-5011   https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs