VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability <p style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 6.0pt 0cm;">VITRUVIO Journal is an international research journal publishing articles with links to architectural technology and sustainability. The aim is to present original technical advances as well as innovative methods and applications in order to contribute to the sustainable development through the architecture.</p> Universitat Politècnica de València en-US VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability 2444-9091 <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Licencia Creative Commons" /></a> </p> <p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a></p> Editorial <p>&nbsp;Editorial VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability, Volume7, Issue 2 (2022)</p> Luis Manuel Palmero Iglesias Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 2 2 3 Approach to comprehensive analysis of bastion castle ensemble with historic gardens: novel combined strategy <p>Bastion castle ensemble is a complex structure that belongs to defensive residences, which usually include the historic gardens and play an important role in the formation of the townscape. The two main structural components of such built complexes are palatial body and bastion fortifications. However, some bigger ensembles can also include other functional buildings. Due to the nature of the structure, namely the presence of defensive elements, which followed military development, many bastion castles underwent huge transformations. They were built and rebuilt because of the outdated design or destruction by the enemy. That is why studying such ensembles only from a historical perspective or analyzing only their fortification part is not enough to understand the whole complex, which is much more than a single-type building. In contrast, this paper proposes an interdisciplinary approach to studying bastion castles on the example of a bastion castle in Zheshov (Poland). Specifically, this paper uses a combined strategy that includes interpretative–historical and qualitative-computational strategies as a systematic and comprehensive approach to the research. This strategy consists of seven points of analysis: historical transformations, composition, situation, landscape, fortifications, typomorphology, and space syntax. This work represents a methodological framework that can be used for the analysis of any bastion castle ensemble in the world.</p> Olha Tikhonova Copyright (c) 2022 VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 2 20 33 10.4995/vitruvioijats.2022.18821 Polychrome majolica of Apulian domes: history, technique, pathology and conservation <p>The paper is focused on the historical-architectural evolution and material-technical qualification of polychrome majolica domes that were built between the 17th and 19th centuries in Apulian religious buildings. In particular, the cultural context in which this solution spread throughout the Mediterranean area is identified. Moreover, the case history of construction and decorative techniques that are distinctive of the regional territory is discussed in terms of underlying structure, installation of elements and surface colours. The study is then detailed on the Church of Santa Maria della Vetrana in Castellana Grotte (BA), for which the morpho-typological survey and mapping of the decay state are presented, based on the use of terrestrial and aerial digital photogrammetry. Finally, based on the identification of the main pathologies from both direct and indirect alteration factors, the most appropriate conservation and maintenance interventions are outlined, with specific focus on repair and integration of the majolica tiles, according to principles of high compatibility and low intrusiveness for a solution meeting artisan tradition and technical practice.</p> Mariella De Fino Vito Domenico Porcari Albina Scioti Antonella Guida Fabio Fatiguso Copyright (c) 2022 VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 2 34 45 10.4995/vitruvioijats.2022.18684 Historical rural architecture of North Portugal and Spanish Galicia: local vernacular forms and concept of adaptation, case study of Porreiras <p>Vernacular forms which can be found in North Portugal and Galicia (region of Western Spain) can be traced down up until times, when this geographical area was bound together through Celtic influences. Wood, stone, and clay, used for local constructions, appear in many forms which are until now well preserved around the area. The main objective of research was to identify vernacular forms, focusing on granaries, commonly found in the study area, and creating the proposal of their reuse. Development and roots of those buildings is researched, showing their historical origin, locally sourced materials used in the region, as well as the state of the buildings nowadays and legal ways of their protection in Spain and Portugal. The base of the project was a village renewal concept which aims to adapt the ruins of unused agricultural settlements located in Porreiras for cultural tourism needs, with a proposal of reusing granaries as pilgrim units. Minimal intervention is made thanks to creating interior of a granary as a piece of furniture, filling, but not interfering with existing construction. Concept of safeguarding granaries through giving them new function is proposed to be implemented on Camino de Santiago tail, since the granaries are commonly found in rural landscape of North Portugal and Spanish Galicia.</p> Marta Orszt Elżbieta Raszeja Copyright (c) 2022 VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 2 46 59 10.4995/vitruvioijats.2022.18845 Design process innovation through flexible and circular technological solutions <p>The goal of optimizing material resources and the polyvalent use of space lead to the development of new technologies within a renewed architectural spatiality, which from the point of view of effectiveness of choices allow for low-carbon buildings. The climate emergency, in fact, asks us today to reinterpret Vitruvius’ concept of <em>Firmitas </em>according to the criteria of durability reliability and resilience associated with widespread usability functionality and circularity (<em>Utilitas</em>) traceable throughout the life cycle a building. The paper illustrates the results of a scientific research project that led to the construction of a prototype of a “minimal” residence, designed and built with the “total low” approach, characterized by regenerative design, economy, lightness, ease of assembly, recyclability, as well as excellent overall performance and high levels of comfort. The idea of a building, easily assembled and disassembled, is a strength of the “Petite-Cabane” design concept: a 3x3 m single-user minimum residential unit made with the Light Gauge Steel Building System (LGS) produced with controlled automatically roll forming machine, for which high technological and energy performance envelope packages. The design of a small house becomes the “mise en forme” of a space in which “essential” equipment, energy performance, architectural qualities, economic and environmental costs are linked to the ease and immediacy of construction but also to the flexibility and circularity of technological choices.</p> Antonella Violano Monica Cannaviello Copyright (c) 2022 VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 2 60 73 10.4995/vitruvioijats.2022.18715 Methodology for the generation of 3D city models and integration of HBIM models in GIS: Case studies <p>The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry increasingly demands the availability of semantic and interactive digital models with the environment, capable of simulating decision-making during its life cycle and representing the results achieved. This motivates the need to develop models that integrate spatial information (GIS) and construction information (HBIM), favouring the achievement of the Smart City and Digital Twin concepts. GIS &amp; HBIM platform is a useful tool, with potential applications in the world of built heritage; but it still has certain inefficiencies related to interoperability, the semantics of the formats and the geometry of the models. The objective of this contribution is to suggest a procedure for the generation of 3D visualization models of existing cities by integrating HBIM models in GIS environments. For this, three software and two types of data sources (existing plans and point cloud) are used. The methodology is tested in four locations of different dimensions, managing to identify the advantages/disadvantages of each application.</p> Cesar A. Carrasco Ignacio Lombillo Javier Sánchez-Espeso Copyright (c) 2022 VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 2 74 87 10.4995/vitruvioijats.2022.18808 Reuse process for timber elements to optimise residual performances in subsequent life cycles <p>The reuse of wooden elements is a sustainable operation, which makes the best use of the material’s grey energy. Currently, structural timber from selective demolition is mainly used for non-structural functions, with a lowering of its performance, due to the lack of standard and specific regulation. In fact, the visual grading used to define the structural characteristics of wood does not evaluate information deriving from the previous life cycles of the component. In the paper, taking samples of rectangular timber elements from selective demolitions made in the Valencian Community, the structural values that are assigned by visual strength grading legislation were compared with the real resistance values identified by experimental analysis to verify their compliance. The verification showed that the visual grading is not able to optimize the performance of the timber element in its reuse. Therefore, the purpose of the research, illustrated in the paper, is to find a reuse process for structural wooden elements to enhance residual performances. The identified process introduces additional steps compared in the current visual grading, that include a consideration of the effective modalities of reuse evaluated according to the worst defects and information arising from previous life cycles.</p> Stefania De Gregorio Copyright (c) 2022 VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 2 88 99 10.4995/vitruvioijats.2022.18809 New recycling technologies of demolished materials for sustainable finishes: the project of concrete reuse on site in Tres Cantos, Madrid <p>The work presented aims to analyse the feasibility of reusing concrete, once demolished from a building in Tres Cantos in Madrid, to manufacture finishing materials for buildings, as well as to design a procedure. The first phase consists of a bibliographic search on the reuse of materials, analysing the techniques adopted so far and the lines of work. The second phase related to the acquisition of data related to the production and recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) at a European level. The third phase consists of the study of recycled aggregates resulting from demolitions or landslides, their treatment process. The fourth and final phase consists of the development of a laboratory test plan to evaluate varied materials for finishing exterior cement pavements with concrete from the demolition of the case study building. There were many conclusions and results of the project. The granulometry of the fine fraction of demolished concrete is suitable to produce non-structural products, such as building finishes and in particular non-driveway outdoor flooring. In terms of flexural and compressive strength, the mechanical behaviour of recycled mixes is lower than that of reference mixes. The recycled mixes show slightly higher capillary absorption capacities than the reference mixes, and the value is higher the greater the percentage of recycled aggregates used (a critical issue which can be resolved by pre-saturating the recycled material).</p> Giuseppe Trinchese Alessia Verniero Gregorio García López de la Osa Copyright (c) 2022 VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 2 100 111 10.4995/vitruvioijats.2022.18844 Renato Rizzi <p>Full Professor in Architectural Design at the Instituto Universitario di Architettura (IUAV) in Venice, he carries out an intense intellectual activity by connecting teaching, theory, research, and practice. Prize of the Italian Presidency of the Republic for architecture 2017, he has delivered seminars and lectures in some of the main universities including Harvard, UIC Chicago, ETH, etc. From 1984 to 1992 he collaborated with Peter Eisenman, New York, on the projects Romeo and Juliet, Verona (1986, Stone Lion, III Architecture Biennale of Venice), La Villette Park, Paris (1986), Monte Paschi, Siena (1988), etc. Among the main international projects: Great Egyptian Museum, Cairo (2002, third prize); MOMA Warsaw (2007, Honorable Mention); John Paul II Center, Krakow (2007, special mention); Torre della Ricerca, Padua (2008, fourth prize, in collaboration with Peter Eisenman); Museum of Judaism, Ferrara (2010, Special Mention). Main projects completed: Ghiaie Sports Area, Trento (1984-1998); Fortunato Depero Museum of Futurism, Rovereto (1992-2008); Gdańsk Shakespearean Theater (2004-2013). His projects are published in the main international magazines such as Casabella, Domus, Architectural Review, Detail, and have been exhibited at the Venice Biennale (1984, 1985, 1996, 2002, 2010 and 2016), Triennale di Milano, Accademia di San Luca, etc. Awards: Fritz Höger, Berlin, 2017; Architizer A, Belgium, 2016; Iconic Award, Monaco DB, 2015; Gold Medal, Milan, 2015, 2009; Golden Compass, Milan, 2015, 2011; Council of Europe, Landscape Award, 2009. Some significant publications: Il Cosmo della Bildung, Mimesis 2016; Unexpected Parma, MUP 2013; The Daìmon of Architecture, Mimesis 2014; John Hejduk, Incarnatio, Marsilio 2010; The Divine of the Landscape, Marsilio 2008; John Hejduk BRONX, Manual in verse, Mimesis 2020. He recently founded in Venice the Nuova Scuola Architettura, a free school that focuses on the urgency of a new (heretical) gaze at Architecture, a necessity which derives from the cultural abyss of our time. The Accademia Nazionale di San Luca in Rome is currently paying a tribute to his oeuvre in a grand exhibition of gypsum models and maquettes titled “eden-eden. Renato Rizzi”, which can be visited until March third, 2023.</p> Paola Ardizzola Joanna Grądzka Copyright (c) 2022 VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 2 4 19 10.4995/vitruvioijats.2022.19041