The perception of heritage values and their analysis by using GIS tools in vernacular heritage landscapes

Pablo Altaba Tena


The main objective of the study is to assess, independently of the scenic beauty, the importance and composition of the different attributes within a given landscape. For this purpose, the study focuses on Penyagolosa where we have selected three areas of evaluation to determine the importance of distance in the determination of heritage values of the landscape. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) determines what values are detectable on the basis of the terms of proximity and remoteness and how they are applied in three cases of assessment. Thus, 5 criteria have been set to analyze these values: 1. the overview of the landscape, 2. dominance or intensity of elements, 3. the aesthetic composition of space, 4. The selective interpretation of the visual and 5 variables. The fragility or alterations induced in the landscape. Ultimately, criteria are discussed from dynamic and static fields of the authenticity and integrity of the landscape and they affect how they neglect.


Vernacular landscape; Vernacular architecture; Heritage values; GIS for heritage

Full Text:



Agnoletti, M. (2014). Rural landscape, nature conservation and culture: Some notes on research trends and management approaches from a (southern) European perspective. Landscape and Urban Planning, 126, 66-73.

Benayas, J., Martins, A., Nicolau, J., & Schulz, J. (2007). Abandonment of agricultural land: an overview of drivers and consequences. CAB reviews: Perspectives in agriculture, veterinary science, nutrition and natural resources, 2(57), 1-14.

Brown, G., & Fagerholm, N. (2015). Empirical PPGIS/PGIS mapping of ecosystem services: A review and evaluation. Ecosystem Services, 13, 119-133.

Brown, G., Weber, D., & de Bie, K. (2014). Assessing the value of public lands using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and social landscape metrics. Applied Geography, 53, 77-89.

Chamberlain, B., & Meitner, M. (2013). A route-based visibility analysis for landscape management. Landscape and Urban Planning, 111, 13-24.

Coeterier, J. (1996). Dominant attributes in the perception and evaluation of the Dutch landscape. Landscape Urban Planning, 34, 27-44.

Consejo de Europa. (2000). Convenio Europeo del Paisaje. Florencia (Italia).

de la Torre, M. (2013). Values and Heritage Conservation. Heritage & Society, 60(2), 155-166.

Domon, G. (2011). Landscape as resource: Consequences, challenges and opportunities for rural development. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100(4), 338–340.

Dupont, L., Antrop, M., & Van Eetvelde, V. (2015). Does landscape related expertise influence the visual perception of landscape photographs? Implications for participatory landscape planning and management. Landscape and Urban Planning, 141, 68-77.

Folch, R., & Bru, J. (2017). Ambient, territori i paisatge. Valors i valoracions. Barcelona: Editorial Barcino.

Fredheim, L., & Khalaf, M. (2016). The significance of values: heritage value typologies re-examined. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 22(6), 466-481.

Fry, G., Tveit, M., Ode, A., & Velarde, M. (2009). The ecology of visual landscapes: Exploring the conceptual common ground of visual and ecological landscape indicators. Ecological Indicators, 9(5), 933-947.

García-Esparza, J. A. (2016). Re-thinking the validity of the past. Deconstructing what authenticity and integrity mean to the fruition of cultural heritage. Vitruvio - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability, 1(1), 20-33.

García-Esparza, J. A. (2017). Are World Heritage concepts of integrity and authenticity lacking in dynamism? A critical approach to Mediterranean autotopic landscapes. Landscape Research.

Gobster, P., Nassauer, J., Daniel, T., & Fry, G. (2007). The shared landscape: what does aesthetics have to do with ecology? Landscape Ecology, 22, 959-972.

Gulinck, H., Múgica, M., de Lucio, J., & Atauri, J. (2001). A framework for comparative landscape analysis and evaluation based on land cover data, with an application in the Madrid region (Spain). Landscape and Urban Planning, 55(4), 257-270.

Gullino, P., & Larcher, F. (2013). Integrity in UNESCO World Heritage Sites. A comparative study for rural landscapes. Journal of Cultural Heritage (14), 389--395.

Harvey, D. (2010). Heritage Pasts and Heritage Presents: temporality, meaning and the scope of heritage studies. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 7(4), 319-338.

Hourdequin, M., & Havlick, D. (2016). Restoring Layered Landscapes: History, Ecology, and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

ICOMOS. (1994). The Nara Document on Authenticity. París: ICOMOS.

ICOMOS. (2000). The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS charter for places of cultural significance 1999: with associated guidelines and code on the ethics of co-existence. Australia: ICOMOS.

Lasanta-Martínez, T., Vicente-Serrano, S. M., & Cuadrat-Prats, J. M. (2005). Mountain Mediterranean landscape evolution caused by the abandonment of traditional primary activities: a study of the Spanish Central Pyrenees. Applied Geography, 25, 47-65.

López-Martínez, F. (2017). Visual landscape preferences in Mediterranean areas and their socio-demographic influences. Ecological Engineering, 104, 205–215.

MacDonald , D., Crabtree, J., Wiesinger , G., Dax , T., Stamou , N., Fleury , P., . . . Gibon , A. (2000). Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: environmental consequences and policy response. J Environ Manage, 59, 47–69.

Martín, B., Ortega, E., Otero, I., & Arce, R. M. (2016). Landscape character assessment with GIS using map-based indicators and photographs in the relationship between landscape and roads. Journal of Environmental Management, 180(15), 324-334.

Matsuoka, R. H., & Kaplan, R. (2008). People needs in the urban landscape: Analysis of Landscape And Urban Planning contributions. Landscape and Urban Planning, 84(1), 7-19.

Nassauer, J. (2011). Care and stewardship: From home to planet. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100(4), 321–323.

Nassauer, J., & Opdam, P. (2008). Design in science: Extending the landscape ecology paradigm. Landscape Ecology, 23, 633-644.

Navarro, L. M., & Pereira, H. M. (2012). Rewilding Abandoned Landscapes in Europe. Ecosystems, 15(6), 900–912.

Nutsford, D., Reitsma, F., Pearson, A. L., & Kingham, S. (2015). Personalising the viewshed: Visibility analysis from the human perspective. Applied Geography, 62, 1-7.

Parkinson, A., Scott, M., & Redmond, D. (2016). Competing discourses of built heritage: lay values in Irish conservation planning. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 22(3), 261-273.

Pendlebury, J. (2013). Conservation values, the authorised heritage discourse and the conservation-planning assemblage. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 19(7), 709-727.

Pendlebury, J., & Gibson, L. (2009). Valuing historic environments. En J. Pendlebury, & L. Gibson, Valuing historic environments (págs. 1-18). Farnham: Ashgate.

Plottu, E., & Plottu, B. (2013). Total landscape values: a multidimensional approach. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 55(6), 797-811. doi:10.1080/09640568.2011.628818

Silva, R., & Fernàndez, V. (2017). El nuevo paradigma del patrimonio y su consideración con los paisajes: Conceptos, métodos y prospectivas. Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica, 63/1, 129-151.

Smith, L. (2006). The uses of heritage. London: Routledge.

Smith, L. (2011). El "espejo patrimonial". ¿ilusión narcisista o reflexion es múltiples? Antipoda(12), 39-63.

Smith, L. (2013). Editorial. Internacional Journal of Heritage Studies, 325–326.

Spennermann, D. H. (2006). Gauging Community Values in Historic Preservation. CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship, 3(2), 6–20.

Stenseke, M. (2016). Integrated landscape management and the complicating issue of temporality. Landscape Research, 41(2), 199-211.

Stephenson, J. (2008). "The Cultural Values Model: An Integrated Approach to Values in Landscapes.". Landscape and Urban Planning, 84(2), 127-139.

Stewart, W. P., Liebert, D., & Larkin, K. W. (2004). Community identities as visions for landscape change. Landscape and Urban Planning, 69(2-3), 315-334.

Swanwick, C. (2002). Landscape Character Assessment: Guidance for England and Scotland. The Countryside Agency and Scottish Natural Heritage.

Tempesta, T. (2010). The perception of agrarian historical landscapes: A study of the Veneto plain in Italy. Landscape and Urban Planning, 97(4), 258-272.

Tudor, C. (2014). An approach to landscape character assessment. Natural England.

Tveit, M., Ode, A., & Fry, G. (2007). Key concepts in a framework for analysing visual landscape character. Landscape Research, 31(3), 229-255.

Uuemaa, E., Mander, U., & Riho Marja, R. (2013). Trends in the use of landscape spatial metrics as landscape indicators: a review. Ecological Indicators, 28, 100-106.

Wagtendonk, A. J., & Vermaat, J. E. (2014). Visual perception of cluttering in landscapes: Developing a low resolution GIS-evaluation method. Landscape and Urban Planning, 124, 85-92.

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Cited-By (articles included in Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

1. The Heritagization of a Mediterranean Vernacular Mountain Landscape: Concepts, Problems and Processes
Pablo Altaba Tena, Juan A. García-Esparza
Heritage & Society  vol: 11  issue: 3  first page: 189  year: 2018  
doi: 10.1080/2159032X.2019.1670533

Licencia Creative Commons This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Universitat Politècnica de València

e-ISSN: 2444-9091