Virtual Archaeology Review <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong><em>Virtual Archaeology Review</em> (VAR)</strong> is an international web-based, open-access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal. Its focus is a mix of arts and engineering that research on the new field of virtual archaeology. The journal is broadly interdisciplinary, publishing works by scholars in the fields of conservation, documentation, 3D surveying, computer science, dissemination, gaming and other similar disciplines related to heritage and archaeology.</p> en-US <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> <p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>.</p> (Prof. José Luis Lerma) (Administrador PoliPapers) Thu, 11 Jul 2024 13:56:59 +0200 OJS 60 Scientific virtual reality as a research tool in prehistoric archaeology: the case of Atxurra Cave (northern Spain) <p><strong>Highlights: </strong></p> <ul> <li>This study proposes the practical utility of an immersive Virtual Reality (VR) experience for the dissemination and study of Palaeolithic Rock Art.</li> <li>Thanks to a series of multidisciplinary studies, a virtual reconstruction of the archaeological context of an area with rock art has been achieved.</li> <li>The Palaeolithic lighting systems documented in Atxurra cave have been virtually recreated, allowing real-time interaction through VR.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Abstract: </strong></p> <p>The Upper Palaeolithic period (ca. 45000 - 12000 BP) was the time when figurative art chiefly produced by <em>Homo sapiens </em>emerged and developed. The Upper Palaeolithic rock art entails a multisensory experience that goes beyond depicted images observation: it includes aspects related to the cognitive development of human mind, the spatial dimensions, the type of rock surface, artificial lighting, and challenges of navigating the underground environment. Traditionally, the study of Palaeolithic art in caves has focused on paintings and illustrated subjects' graphic analysis. However, a recent shift in methodological focus has favoured a comprehensive and interdisciplinary study of rock art. This new perspective has allowed the investigation of surrounding elements that significantly influence the art and its interpretation. Combining this with new digital technologies, it is now possible to reconstruct Palaeolithic artistic creation and contemplation environments with precision, offering researchers an immersive and interactive experience through virtual reality (VR). The two documented Palaeolithic lighting systems in the sector J “Ledge of the Horses” have been virtually recreated. The lighting simulation parameters are based on those obtained from an anthracological study of the charcoal remains found in the cave and the subsequent experimental program. The study included analysing both three-dimensional (3D) models of the cave, obtained through photogrammetry and laser scanning, and the lighting systems in the graphics engine ©Unreal Engine 5; this allowed the researchers to create an interactive VR environment that faithfully reflects the current state of scientific knowledge about the cavity. Using VR is a substantial methodological advancement, regarding both knowledge transmission and the creation of more robust and coherent archaeological interpretations through sensory perception and historical empathy. This approach has been applied to the main decorated sector of the Atxurra Cave (Basque Country, Spain), a space containing dozens of engraved and painted representations, and surface archaeological material, subjected to a comprehensive multidisciplinary study.</p> Antonio Torres, Mª Ángeles Medina-Alcaide, Iñaki Intxaurbe, Olivia Rivero, Joseba Rios-Garaizar, Martin Arriolabengoa, Juan Francisco Ruiz-López, Diego Garate Copyright (c) 2024 Virtual Archaeology Review Sat, 08 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0200 ‘In the shadows of a giant?’ A spatial analytical method for assessing coastal proximity using R: a case-study from the Bronze Age Saronic Gulf (Greece) <p> <strong>Highlights: </strong></p> <ul> <li>The study introduces novel methods in spatial analysis to reinterpret long-standing archaeological theories about settlement distribution</li> <li>Spatial analysis reveals fluctuating proximity of Bronze Age settlements to the coast in the Saronic Gulf, influenced by socio-cultural and climatic changes.</li> <li>Shifts in settlement patterns and external factors like the rise of Argolic centers reshaped Kolonna's influence, reorienting it towards its hinterlands.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Abstract: </strong></p> <p>This study explores the interrelation between settlement dynamics and coastal proximity during the Bronze Age in the Saronic Gulf, utilising an innovative spatial analytical approach. By integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) and statistical methods in R, this paper analyses a dataset comprising 258 archaeological sites across diverse coastal and inland environments. The methodology uses the Movecost package for R to calculate least-cost paths, quantifying the ease of access to coastlines, and enabling a nuanced interpretation of settlement patterns over time. Results indicate significant shifts in settlement patterns linked to socio-economic, climatic, and political changes. The early phases, particularly during Early Helladic II, show an increased distance from the coast, suggesting a period less reliant on maritime activities despite the existence of extensive maritime networks. Conversely, Early Helladic III and Middle Helladic III–Late Helladic II periods mark a more pronounced coastal orientation; in the first case, it was probably connected to climatic instability and survival strategies and, in the second one, connected to socio-political change and economic opportunities. The analysis challenges traditional views of constant coastal habitation. Instead, it reveals a complex pattern where coastal proximity was not solely dictated by maritime capabilities: it was a strategic choice influenced by a myriad of factors, including security, agricultural potential, external trade relations and climatic change. The rise and fall of Kolonna, a significant urban centre, underscores these dynamics, as shifts in its regional influence correlate with broader Aegean power structures and climatic events. This paper contributes to the understanding of how ancient societies adapted their settlement strategies in response to changing socio-political circumstances. It also demonstrates the potential of R and spatial statistics as powerful tools for archaeological inquiry, providing new perspectives on traditional interpretations of ancient settlement patterns.</p> Christopher Nuttall Copyright (c) 2024 Virtual Archaeology Review Mon, 08 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Modelling pre-Hispanic settlement patterns in Alto de Toche, Colombia <p> <strong>Highlights: </strong></p> <ul> <li>The research contributes to a better understanding of the forms of settlement in the ancient landscape of <em>Alto de Toche</em>, influenced by <em>Cerro Machin </em>Volcano disaster risk.</li> <li>A terrain modelling reconstructed a geoarchaeological mountain landscape, composed of massive systems of terraces at <em>Alto de Toche </em>Wax Palm cloud forest.</li> <li>From digital photogrammetry in fieldwork, three sites were detailed. A DEM of the settlement pattern projected 37 possible new terraces. The resulting map is accessible in an ArcGIS-online web application.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Abstract: </strong></p> <p>The enhancement of the archaeological terraces on the <em>Alto de Toche </em>and the Wax Palm forest is unprecedented. The Toche region in Colombia contains an outstanding anthropised ecosystems presence (8000 BP), characterised by complex inherited cultural patterns, according to the evidences on the eastern margin of the Andes Central Cordillera. The research focused on i) the cultural landscape of the Premontane and Montane Cloud Forests of the <em>Alto de Toche</em>, built by the <em>Toches</em>; ii) its high-altitude settlements, interpreted as a strategy of ecological knowledge, deeply linked to their symbolic understanding of the landscape. Fieldwork in three sets of <em>tambos </em>(terraces for habitational settlements) in <em>La Carbonera</em>, <em>Gallego</em>, and <em>Las Cruces </em>sites was analysed using remote sensing, drone digital photogrammetry, and on-site data. Their interpretation projected a settlement pattern; a typological-topological <em>tambos </em>classification inferred its possible functions such as sighting, funerary, and dwelling, from 2600 MASL to biggest sites at 3000 MASL, related to the sun-moon proximity presumed for gatherings. The authors conclude that the patterns respond to a territorial understanding of its resources and the vertical exploitation of the agricultural thermal floors and micro-watersheds, associated with the east-west solar illumination over both sides of the <em>Tochecito </em>River basin; linked with the transit between ridges and steep slopes, through the network of pathways that originated the <em>Quindío </em>Trail. Data were projected crossing field-data photogrammetry with GIS spatial analysis; this resulted in a terrain model that reconstructs a geoarchaeological landscape composed of massive systems of <em>tambos</em>. Thirty-seven new sites were classified, twenty of them above 2800 MASL. The resulting terrain model facilitates a non-invasive previous prospection for fieldwork planning and a more feasible knowledge of accessibility, due to on-site transit difficulties (steep slopes and very unstable soil due to cattle ranching). Finally, the terrain model was uploaded in an easy-to-access ArcGIS-online web application for sharing with community stakeholders and visiting scientists.</p> César Augusto Velandia, Daniel Ramírez, Jhony Carvajal, David Bejarano Copyright (c) 2024 Virtual Archaeology Review Tue, 28 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Revisiting Cosa (Ansedonia, Italy): contributions of SAR-X images from the PAZ satellite to non-invasive archaeological prospecting <p> <strong>Highlights: </strong></p> <ul> <li>Some archaeological results obtained using SAR-X images received through the PAZ satellite and applied to a part of what was called <em>Ager Cosanus </em>are shown in this article<em>. </em></li> <li>The study has been completed with the analysis of multispectral images TripleSAT and Sentinel-2A and the historical aerial photos from 1944 and 1954.</li> <li>The possibilities of using PAZ images treated multi-temporally as a high-resolution panchromatic image applicable to multispectral optical images of the type Sentinel-2 were tested.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Abstract: </strong></p> <p>Some archaeological results are shown in this article, which have been generated from the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-X images obtained from the PAZ satellite and applied to part of what was called <em>Ager Cosanus</em>, that is, the territory of the city of Cosa, which was one of the first maritime colonies of Rome in the heart of Etruscan territory. Our study has been carried out mainly based on previous works in which a set of images was used to improve the quality of the resulting image, reducing the noise caused by the speckle of the radar images and maintaining the quality of the spatial resolution that can be obtained from these images (1.25 m/pixel). More specifically, a set of images obtained between 2019 and 2021 was used. The study has been completed with the analysis of multispectral images TripleSAT and Sentinel-2A, the historical aerial photos taken from 1944 and 1954, and the use of the historical cadastre of Tuscany, prepared at the beginning of the 19th century. As an addition, the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) of the Region of Tuscany was used, on which various functions of the Relief Visualization Tool (RVT) programme have been applied, complementing or contrasting the results. It can be confirmed that the multi-temporal treatment of SAR PAZ images provides better results than an individualised analysis of the image. Finally, it is of great interest to verify the results of studies using new technologies, where it was previously possible to resort only to prospecting on the ground and to analogical aerial photography in black and white. In this case, the Sinistra Decumano I (SDI) structure was seen, which Castagnoli observed in the aerial photography, but of which he only located materials on the ground and it was visualised both in individualised PAZ images and in Sentinel-2.</p> José Ignacio Fiz Fernández, Pere Manel Martín Serrano, Mercè Grau, Toni Cartes Copyright (c) 2024 Virtual Archaeology Review Mon, 08 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Multi-approach study, digitization and dissemination of a Bronze-Age engraved cup found in Filo Braccio, Filicudi (Aeolian Islands, Italy) <p><strong>Highlights: </strong></p> <ul> <li>A multi-approach methodology was used for a thorough examination of a prehistoric cup decorated with engravings, found at the Bronze Age settlement of Filo Braccio in Filicudi Island (Messina).</li> <li>Photogrammetry and near-infrared (NIR) imaging were combined to create a metrically correct digital replica (with switchable texture); 3D and 2D views were exported to study the vessel’s morphology and decorations.</li> <li>To enrich the visiting experience, the 3D model was integrated into a web-based viewer, and enriched with informative annotation, making it easily accessible through mobile devices and computers.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Abstract: </strong></p> <p>This paper presents a multidisciplinary study combining photogrammetry, near-infrared (NIR) imaging and archaeological analysis to analyse a 1900-1800 BC engraved cup, found at the Bronze Age site of Filo Braccio in Filicudi, Aeolian Islands, Italy. The artefact is unique within the contemporary ‘Capo Graziano’ culture, featuring a rare complex figural scene engraved along the exterior walls; the “scene” provides insights into the prehistoric culture of Filicudi and the Aeolian Islands. The study focused on generating an accurate three-dimensional (3D) model to i) support archaeological research on the artefact's engravings and ii) create engaging digital media for remote and on-site visitors. Photogrammetry used high-resolution photographs taken around the object and control points for metric accuracy assessment. This study also utilises NIR and visible light imaging to examine the engraved cup. The photogrammetric workflow provided a realistic 3D model textured with both visible and NIR data: the 3D model enabled to improve the reading of the engraved scene, revealing horizontal registers of figures, while NIR imaging highlighted material inhomogeneity. The resulting 3D model achieved a high level of detail, with 4381407 faces and a root mean square (RMS) reprojection error of approximately 3.9 μm. The NIR imaging revealed additional surface details not visible in the standard photographs. For dissemination, the optimised 3D model was uploaded to Sketchfab with informative annotations, enabling remote study and cultural promotion of the artefact. This multi-approach methodology offers a valuable tool for comprehensive artefact documentation and analysis, providing new insights into the artefact's complex figural scene.</p> Dario Giuffrida, Maria Clara Martinelli, Francesco Armetta, Maria Luisa Saladino, Rosina Celeste Ponterio Copyright (c) 2024 Virtual Archaeology Review Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Virtual reconstruction of the disappeared Valencia Oil Market (Spain) <p><strong>Highlights: </strong></p> <ul> <li>This paper proposes the virtual reconstruction of the Valencia Oil Market building, of which there are neither archaeological remains nor photographic images.</li> <li>An analysis methodology that allows us to obtain the dimensions of the building from the archival documentary information on the surrounding buildings is developed.</li> <li>The first graphic representation of the building is presented, as no proposal has been set out for the virtual reconstruction to date.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Abstract: </strong></p> <p>This article proposes the virtual reconstruction of a disappeared building from medieval Valencia, known in historiography as <em>Lonja del Aceite</em>, <em>Llotja de l'Oli </em>or <em>Llotja Vella</em>, which was the predecessor of the current <em>Lonja de la Seda</em>, a building declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It was a small building, probably built sometime between the 14th century and the first half of the 15th century; it survived until 1877, when it was demolished as part of the hygienist policies of the 19th century. The singularity of the reconstruction process lies in the absolute lack of physical remains that could constitute the starting point; there is no reliable graphic or photographic representation, beyond the schematic images contained in two perspective plans of the city of Valencia: Mancelli’s (1608) and Tosca’s (1704). As a result, there is still no reliable image of the building as it was at the time of its construction. The three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction has been based on the discovery of unpublished graphic and urban planning documentation; its analysis and validation has been complemented by an in-depth urban study based on historical cartographies. The objective is to determine, in the most objective possible way, its dimensions and location. On the other hand, concerning the formal and constructive definition, a comparative study has been resorted to with the Valencian and Italian architecture contemporary to the original building. The <em>Lonja del Aceite</em>, Oil Market, virtual reconstruction recovers the image of a practically unknown building in the history of Valencia, recovering that lost image with the aim of reintegrating it, in some way, into the collective consciousness.</p> Jorge Llopis Verdú, Nicolás Gutiérrez-Pérez, Ignacio Cabodevilla-Artieda Copyright (c) 2024 Virtual Archaeology Review Tue, 30 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Application of virtualisation methods in archaeology: the case of stela A from the tomb of Henenu (TT 313, Deir el-Bahari, Egypt) <p>This paper aims to demonstrate how the combination of digital methods for virtual reconstruction is valuable both for knowledge dissemination and for its application in research. Through the case study of the tomb of Henenu (TT 313: Deir el-Bahari, Luxor), this paper shows that the virtual reconstruction techniques constitute a very powerful tool to test hypotheses. Based on this objective, namely the testing of several hypotheses about the dimension and location of various tomb stelae, the authors explain the workflow used during the reconstructing process of these stelae found in the tomb of Henenu and suggest their originally intended setting within the tomb.</p> <p>Hundreds of stelae fragments were found by the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art archaeological expedition between 1922 and 1923. Upon these discoveries, archaeologists decided to reconstruct four stelae, emphasising stela A, whose quality attests for its relevant position in the monument. William Hayes identified four different stelae on the basis of the rock types, the stelae fragments thickness, the edge types (curve-edged vs. flat-edged), as well as the iconographic and inscriptional materials attested through the fragments. In 2015, the Middle Kingdom Theban Project (MKTP) continued with the previous works in the area and initiated the recovery of hundreds of fragments from the tomb of Henenu, some of them previously unattested. Once the archaeological and architectural data were collected, the MKTP specialists proceeded to calculate and reconstruct the four stelae dimensions through digital means. In addition, the researchers tested whether these four stelae fit the rock-cut niches identified for their original location. All of them were located in the tomb main corridor leading to the public cultic area within the rock-cut tomb. The following pages describe the workflow used in this process, expanding from the tomb cleaning and laser scanning to digital documentation and modelling. For this project, the architects of the team used the laser scanner Faro Focus 3D to document Henenu’s tomb, including the corridor leading to its cultic chamber, as well as the tomb restricted (sacred) areas (i.e., burial chambers and shafts). The data obtained was subsequently processed in Leica Cyclone to obtain a mesh. However, the resulting mesh was not sufficiently clean as it presented some noise. Noise consists of anomalies generated during the scanning process, and it is critical to achieve the most accurate result. The cleaning process was carried out in different software. The outcome was then imported into the Blender modelling software. This result enabled the researchers to create a virtual model of Henenu’s stela A, which was then textured using the Substance Painter software. For this procedure, specialists searched for ancient Egyptian limestone stelae examples with similar textures. In the final phase, Photoshop and Substance Painterwere combined, which was key for reproducing the details of the inscription carved in the stela A. The stela major topic is the provision of offerings to the deceased and the guarantee of benefactions for the deceased; this explains why the presumable niche for this object was just at the entrance of the tomb.</p> <p> The ancient Egyptian findings reconstruction is an essential part of the archaeological, epigraphic, and conservation initiatives conducted by the MKTP in the cemeteries of Deir el-Bahari and Asasif (Luxor, Egypt). This multidisciplinary international project seeks to continue with the excavation, documentation, and publication of the archaeological, artistic, and material finds dating to the Eleventh and Twelfth dynasties in the Theban necropolis. Thanks to the virtual reconstruction and to the study of the related data, scholars were able to choose one of the initial reconstruction and location hypotheses of these stelae, providing an answer to the initial question of the project, particularly in the case of stela A.</p> Antonio J. Morales, Mario Ramírez Galán, Marina Camacho Galán, Flavio Celis D’Amico, Ernesto Echeverría Valiente Copyright (c) 2024 Virtual Archaeology Review Mon, 08 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Constructive and structural analysis of the coastal batteries at La Chira Beach (Peru) <p>The Viceroyalty of Peru, a territorial linchpin within the expansive Spanish Empire during the colonial epoch in South America, prominently featured Lima as its capital and the strategically vital port of Callao. Despite the formidable presence of the Real Felipe Fortress in Callao, this territory found itself besieged by an array of foreign threats, a testament to its undeniable strategic significance. This comprehensive research plunges into the intricate tapestry of the defensive strategies devised by the Viceroyalty of Peru, stretching from the early waves of pirate attacks in the 17th century to the ominous spectre of British threats looming in the early 19th century. Of particular note is the pivotal role played by Viceroy Abascal, who stood as a bulwark against independence movements and incursions from Buenos Aires.</p> <p>Viceroy Abascal's meticulous strategy manifested in the fortification of military defences in Lima, the fortification of the port of Callao, and the vigilant safeguarding of the Peruvian coast. This strategic vision reached its zenith with the erection of coastal batteries on La Chira Beach, a historical endeavour that, regrettably, has largely escaped widespread recognition to this day.</p> <p>The coastal batteries at La Chira Beach not only stand as tangible relics of military architecture during the Viceroyalty of Peru but also embody a strategic adaptation to the specific geographical conditions of the region. Their historical and strategic importance accentuates the pressing need to implement measures that transcend mere preservation, actions that are essential to maintaining their structural integrity. This research, far from being a mere scholarly exercise, plays a pivotal role in securing recognition for these structures as irreplaceable components of historical heritage, thus illuminating the annals of the region's history and cultural identity in a more profound and nuanced light.</p> <p>The study embarks on an exhaustive examination of the coastal batteries at La Chira, with the explicit goal of enriching our understanding of the 19th century coastal defence system within the Viceroyalty of Peru. Leveraging advanced methodologies such as photogrammetry and geographic information systems (GIS), the research facilitates a meticulous analysis of the architectural intricacies and spatial planning of these batteries, alongside an assessment of their current state of preservation.</p> <p>Extending beyond the boundaries of academia, this study extends a compelling invitation to the broader research and cultural community to delve into the exploration of the coastal batteries at La Chira. Simultaneously, it issues an impassioned plea to cultural authorities, urging them to promptly implement measures to preserve and officially acknowledge these structures as an integral facet of the architectural legacy of the Viceroyalty of Peru. The absence of timely intervention not only exposes these historical structures to the tangible risk of deterioration but also jeopardizes the region and the country at large, depriving them of a more comprehensive and enriched understanding of their historical tapestry.</p> <p>The apprehension regarding the preservation status of these historical structures takes on heightened urgency. Despite standing resilient against the passage of two centuries, their accelerated deterioration, exacerbated by human intervention, presents an imminent threat. The absence of official recognition and the lack of protective heritage measures loom large as significant peril factors in the enduring preservation of these silent witnesses to history. Neglecting or dismissing their historical significance not only consigns future generations to a detachment from the past but also engenders a void in comprehending the intricate interplay of history, culture, and identity in a region sculpted by the events and strategic decisions of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Ultimately, an inertia in action could translate into the irrevocable loss of a precious legacy, one that merits meticulous care and celebration as an integral chapter in the opulent history of this part of the world.</p> Diego Javier Celis Estrada Copyright (c) 2024 Virtual Archaeology Review Wed, 17 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 The “arte” of marble: an archaeological and digital approach to 19th century hydraulic sawmills in the Almanzora Valley (Almeria, Spain) <p>This work is framed within the historical processes of industrialisation that took place in the Almanzora Valley (Almería, Spain) throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. This geographic depression located in the centre of Almeria, province in the southeast of Spain, is structured by a river of the same name, with an irregular regime, which flows entirely through Almería territory. This river valley divides the province geologically and climatically from its source in the Sierra de los Filabres to its mouth at the Mediterranean Sea.</p> <p>In this geographic and geological area, where the exploitation of marble has been a reality since prehistoric times, the so-called hydraulic sawmills emerged in the first half of the 19th century. These production complexes were based on a mechanised system known as ‘arte’ or ‘telar’. Fed by extensive networks of irrigation channels, the introduction of this hydraulic cutting mechanism made it possible to considerably speed up the processing of marble. This progressive mechanisation of the marble industry would lay the foundations of a prosperous economic sector that survives to this day, with a great international projection. A clear example of the development and evolution of these industrial complexes can be found in the so-called Nicoli Factory (Macael, Almería), which due to its location, age and longevity is an excellent case study.</p> <p>This intricate historical context that gave rise to the hydraulic marble sawmills has been analysed through two growing theoretical lines with a strong methodological and interpretative heterogeneity: Industrial Archaeology and Virtual Archaeology. At the very confluence of both archaeological branches, this study presents a multidisciplinary methodological flow to study this heritage, focusing on the Nicoli Factory specific case (built in the 19th century). Thus, a historical and archival study has been carried out to locate and specify the Nicoli Factory chronologies of use. Subsequently, archaeological prospection was used to analyse and study the factory remains, which were quite altered. In addition to this, the remains digitisation was carried out using Structure from Motion photogrammetry with the support of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Based on the historical-archaeological data, together with the three-dimensional (3D) model of the environment and the factory remains, the authors proceeded to their digital analysis and the virtual reconstruction of what this factory would have looked like in the early production days. It is therefore a question of using 3D modelling as a method to test different construction and industrial work organisation hypotheses quickly, effectively, at low cost and without affecting the material heritage in any way. An interdisciplinary approach arises to demonstrate that the industrial past can be approached not only from more technical disciplines such as Architecture or Engineering, but also from the heart of Archaeology itself.</p> <p>As the following lines explain, the use of these digital tools in studies of different periods of the past opens up new and interesting experimentation avenues beyond the mere dissemination of heritage. In this sense, virtual scenarios allow archaeologists not only to reconstruct the object, the structure or the landscape from the remains that exist today but also to face the challenges of the societies that built them. Virtual reconstruction thus becomes a kind of Experimental Archaeology, faster, more convenient and more integrative. Moreover, the fact of working in a virtual scenario allows for easy reproducibility of this reconstruction type; hypotheses can be easily tested or modified in the event of finding new data. Virtual Archaeology, therefore, offers interesting perspectives and tools even for periods closer to the present, which are a priori better known.</p> José Javier Carreño Soler, Alexis Maldonado Ruiz, Jorge Rouco Collazo Copyright (c) 2024 Virtual Archaeology Review Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0200