When new technology joins old documents and east meets west: virtually reconstructing the Fisher Island Pagoda Lighthouse (China)
Keywords:3D reconstruction, virtual reality, epigraphy, 3D Printing, documentation
Located on the route between Xiamen and Taiwan (China), the Penghu (Pescadores Islands) are an archipelago and the site of a military garrison. The second largest island, Xiyu or Fisher Island, was accordingly an obvious point to build a navigational marker to guide sailors. Records indicate that some type of a marker, in the form of a tower or pagoda, was constructed in the 17thcentury. However, in 1778the original was replaced by a different sort of pagoda tower. The new structure has long been known to have been a purpose fully designed lighthouse. Although today’s Yuwengdao lighthouse, built in 1875, has become a famous heritage landmark, the earlier 1778 structure, it can be argued has greater heritage significance in that it was an entirely original creation preceding the introduction of western lighthouse technology in China by nearly a century. Thanks to the fortunate discovery of a hitherto unknown photograph of this earlier lighthouse backed by further research in early navigational documents, gazetteers, charts and inscriptions and The authors have been able to make a 3D virtual reconstruction using state-of-the-art Revit software and thus answer several research questions about this old lighthouse pagoda, including dimensions, location, orientation, function and materials.
Bastanlar, Y., Grammalidis, N., Zabulis, X., Yilmaz, E., Yardimci, Y., & Triantafyllidis, G. (2008). 3D reconstruction for a cultural heritage virtual tour system. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 37-B5, 1023–1036.
Broughton, W.R.(1804). A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific Ocean in which the Coast of Asia, from the lat. of 35º North to the Island of Insu (commonly known under the name of the Land of Yesso), the North, South, and East Coasts of Japan, the Lieuchieux and the Adjacent Island, as well as the Coast of Corea, have been examined and surveyed, performed in His Majesty’s Sloop Providence and her tender, in the years 1795, 1796, 1797, 1798. London: T. Cadell & W. Davies.
Brooker, G.A.C. (1859). Journal of HMS “Inflexible” on a Visit to Formosa, in search of shipwrecked seamen. In The Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle for 1859.London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co.
Bureau of Cultural Heritage Ministry of Culture. (2017). Fisher Island Lighthouse. Retrieved09 July, 2017, from http://view.boch.gov.tw/NationalHistorical/ItemsPage_en.aspx?id=85
Chiou, S.-C., & Krishnamurti, R. (1995). The fortunate dimensions of Taiwanese traditional architecture. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 22, 547–562. https://doi.org/10.1068/b220547
Collinson, R.(1844a).Draft survey, H.M.Ships Plover andYoung Hebe.United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Archives, L4368 Shelf 13G.
Collinson, R.(1844b). Surveying Journal of Captain Richard Collinson, China 1840-1844. Manuscript notebook.United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Archives, OD153.
Collinson, R.(1845). Sailing Directions for the Panghú, or Pescadore Archipelago, with notices of the islands. The Chinese Repository, 16(6), 249–257.
Collinson, R. (Ed. R. Loney).(1855). The China Pilot. Part I. East Coast from Hongkong to Shanghai.London: The Hydrographic Office.
Fix, D.(2008). "Spotting heights: Topographical sketches and panoramas in 19th-century Euroamerican cartography of Taiwan". Unpublished paper presented at New Perspectives on Geographic Space. International Symposium on Historical Cartography, National Palace Museum, Taipei.
Gützlaff, C. F. H. (1834). Journal of Two Voyages along the Coast of China, in 1831 & 1832, with notices of Siam, Korea, and the Loo-Choo islands. London: Westley & Davis
King, J.W. (Ed.).(1861). The China Pilot, 3rd Edition, London: The Hydrographic Office.
Levathes, L.(1994). When China ruled the seas: the treasure fleet of the Dragon Throne 1405-1433.New York: Simon & Schuster.
Lin, H. (2000). å°ç£æ–‡ç»å²æ–™å¢åˆŠï¼šæ¾Žæ¹–å»³å¿—[Taiwan Collectanea: Penghu Gazetteer]. Taiwan literature history series, Táiběixiàn Yǒnghéshì: Dàtōng shūjú yǒuxiàngōngsī.
Maícas, J., & Viñals, M. (2017). Design of a virtual tour for the enhancement of Llíria’s architectural and urban heritage and its surroundings. Virtual Archaeology Review, 8(17), 42–48. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2017.5845
Mak, M.Y., & So, A.T. (2015). Scientific Feng Shui for the Built Environment: Theories and Applications, New Ed.Hong Kong:City University of HK Press.
National Palace Museum(2017). Illustrated Guide to Penghu's West Island Lighthouse, Map of Penghu's West Island Lighthouse, Diagram Showing the Reconstruction of various Structures in the Prefecture of Taiwan. Retrieved 4September 2017, from http://theme.npm.edu.tw/exh102/tailwind/en/ch02.html
Portalés, C., Alonso-Monasterio, P., & Viñals, M.(2017). 3D virtual reconstruction and visualisation of the archaeological site Castellet de Bernabe (Lliria, Spain).Virtual Archaeology Review, 8(16): 75–82. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2017.5890
Roser, M.(2017).Human Height.Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved 20 June 2017,from https://ourworldindata.org/human-height
Royal Geographical Society (before 1900). Lighthouse on Fisher Island (Pescadores) [Data file]. Control Number: rgs043108. Barcode: 47414–1001:Anonymous.
Steere, J.B. (1874, February 1). [Letterfrom Formosa] LXXVIII (#78) Taiwanfu. Ann Arbor Courier, 12th June 1874. Retrieved 10 September 2017, from https://www.reed.edu/formosa/texts/Steere1873-74.htm
Vingboons, J. (1665). Kaerte van’t Eylandt Formosa en de Eylandte van de Piscadores. Dutch National Archive 4.VELH619-52.Retrieved 12 May 2017, from http://www.gahetna.nl/collectie/afbeeldingen/kaartencollectie/zoeken/weergave/detail/start/1/tstart/0/q/zoekterm/Formosa
Wang, C.-S.E.(2003). Historic Preservation in Taiwan: The Restoration of Tainan Da Tianhou Gong(unpublished Master of Science thesis).University of Pennsylvania.
Waters, D.W. (1989).The Eva G.R. Taylor Lecture: The English Pilot: English Sailing Directions and Charts and the Rise of English Shipping, 16thto 18thCentures.The Journal of Navigation, 42(3), 317–354. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0373463300014636
Worcester,G.R.G. (1947-48). The junks and sampans of the Yangtze; a study in Chinese nautical research, 2 Vols., Inspectorate-General of Customs, Shanghai.
How to Cite
This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.