Evaluating the communication efficiency of the websites at the archaeological and heritage destination of Cartagena (Spain)

María Dolores Teruel, María José Viñals


Archaeological  heritage  is  presented  as  a  driven force  of  tourism  in  Mediterranean  destinations.  To  obtain  a  balance between heritage conservation and tourism development is a challenge to achieve in most of heritage destinations. For this, it is proposed to grant to strategic communication through the Information and Communications Technology(ICT) greater valuation whether appropriate objectives are assigned beyond promotional or informative. Thus, this research work is  devoted  to identifying the  capacities  for  strategic  communication  of  three  tourist and  cultural  heritage  websites  of Cartagena (Murcia, Spain) through a methodological analysis and evaluation resource called “Communicative Efficiency Questionnaire”(CEC).This instrument is based on three analysis criteria and consists of 11 indicators and 36 variables that demonstrate the communication efficiency of ICT and its relationship with tourism. The first analysis criterion focuses its attention on tourism-heritage relations. In this sense, it is concerned with promoting the necessary tools to manage tourism efficiently, responsibly and sustainably based on the local context and the needs of the managed population. The second analysis criterion seeks to know if the heritage site is concerned with the involvement of the stakeholders and local communities in management and that they have the knowledge and professional skills to carry out their work properly. Finally,  the third analysis  criterion assess  whether  the  website  includes  interpretative  messages  that  contribute  to  the appreciation of the public and residents about the heritage. This criterion is developed by six indicators and is very important for the CEC since they focus on the analysis of the importance of the information and its transmission through the websites. The results highlight the potential of strategic communication and the opportunity to attribute it higher uses in touristic and cultural heritage management aspects.


strategic communication; heritage resources; tourist management; websites; Information and Communications Technology(ICT)

Full Text:



Andreu, L., Bigné, J., & Cooper, C. (2000). Projected and perceived image of Spain as a tourist destination for British travellers. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 9(4), 47–67. doi:10.1300/J073v09n04_03

Badia, F. (2011). Contents and aims of management plans for World Heritage Sites: managerial analysis with a special focus on the Italian scenario. Journal of Cultural Policy and Management, 1, 40–49.

Borges, M., Carbone, G., Bushell, R., & Jaeger, T. (2011). Sustainable tourism and natural world heritage. Priorities for action. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of the Nature.

Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1996). Tourism, ecotourism and protected areas: the state of nature-based tourism around the world and guidelines for its development. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of the Nature.

Cleere, H. (2012). The impact of World Heritage listing. ICOMOS 17thGeneral Assembly. Paris. France: ICOMOS.

Di Marino, E. (2008). The strategic dimension of destination image. An analysis of the French Riviera image from the Italian tourists' perceptions. Naples: University of Naples "Frederico II".

Doxey, G. (1975). A causation theory of visitor-resident irritants: methodology and reseach inferences. In Sixth annual conference proceedings of the Travel Research Association (pp. 195–198). San Diego, USA.

Esclapés, J., Tejerina, D., Bolufer, J., & Esquembre, M. (2013). Sistema de realidad aumentada para la musealización de yacimientos arqueológicos. Virtual Archaeological Review, 4(9), 42–47. doi:10.4995/var.2013.4246

Giannoulis-Giannoulopoulos, G. (2012). Organizational aspects of ICT application in cultural heritage "Virtual Museum" context: the permanent challege of reconciliation of diverging scientific, technical, operational and financial objetives. Virtual Archaeology Review, 3(7), 8–13.doi:10.4995/var.2012.4370

Ham, S. H. (1992). Interpretación Ambiental, Una Guía Práctica. Colorado: North American Press.

Hamú, D., Auchincloss, E., & Goldstein, W. (Eds.) (2004). Communicating Protected Areas, Commision on Education and Communication. Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK: International Union for Conservation of the Nature.

Jimura, T. (2011). The impact of World Heritage site destination on local communities -A case study of Ogimachi, Shirakawa-mura, Japan. Tourism Management, 32(2), 288–296. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2010.02.005

Lyons, G. (2002). Internet: Investigating new technology's evolving role, nature and effects on transport. Transport Policy, 9(4), 335–346. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(02)00023-9

Pedersen, A. (2002). Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: A Practical Manual for World Heritage Site Managers. UNESCO, World Heritage Papers, 1.

Ruiz Lanuza, A., & Pulido Fernández, J. (2015). El impacto del turismo en los Sitios Patrimonio de la Humanidad. Una revisión de las publicaciones científicas de la base de datos Scopus. PASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 1247–1264.

Ruiz Valderas, E., Lechuga Galindo, M., & Martínez Molina, A. (2005). Cartagena Puerto de Culturas: una apuesta por el patrimonio de la ciudad. In De la Excavación al público: procesos de decisión y creación de nuevos recursos(pp. 197–202). Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza.

Soulard, J., & McGehee, N. (2017). Glocalization management stategies of NGOs engaged in transformative tourism. Tourism Travel and Research Association: Advancing Tourism Research Globally, 5. Retrieved 29 October 2017, from http://scholarworks.umass.edu/ttra/2017/Academic_Papers_Visual/5

Tao, W., & Luca, Z. (2011). Management and presentation of Chinese sites for UNESCO World Heritage List. Facilities, 29(7/8), 313–325. doi:10.1108/02632771111130924

Teruel, L. (2016). Eficiencia comunicativa de las páginas web en el caso de la Gestión turística de los Sitos Patrimonio de la Humanidad en España. Boletín de la Asociación Geógrafos Española, 71, 323–346.doi:10.21138/bage.2285

Teruel, L., & Viñals, M.J. (2012). Internet applications for strategic communication, tourism and local communities in relation to heritage. In M.T. Albert, M. Richon, M. J. Viñals, & A. Witcomb (Eds.): Community development through World Heritage(pp. 54–61). UNESCO, World Heritage Papers 31.

Teruel, L., & Viñals, M.J. (2016). Comunicación estratégica aplicada al destino turístico-cultural de Cartagena (Murcia-España). In Lerma, J.L. & Cabrelles, M. (Eds.): Proceedings of the Archaeologica 2.0. 8th International Congress on Archaeology, Computer Graphics, Cultural Heritage and Innovation (pp. 369–371). Valencia, 5-7 September, 2016. Ed. Universitat Politècnica de València.

Tilden, F. (1977). Interpreting our Heritage (3rdEd.).Chapel Hill: The University of North Caroline Press.

UNEP (2002). Principles for implementation of sustainable tourism. Retrieved 24 February 2002, from http://uneptie.org/tourism/policy/principles.htm

UNESCO. (2002). Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites.Paris: World Heritage Centre.

UNESCO (2008). Directrices prácticas para la aplicación de la Convención del Patrimonio Mundial. Comité intergubernamental de protección del patrimonio mundial cultural y natural.París: World Heritage Centre.

UNESCO(2016). World Heritage Tourism Programme.Retrieved 21 January 2016, from http://whc.unesco.org/en/sustainabletourism

UNWTO (1993). Desarrollo turístico sostenible. Guía para planificadores locales.Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

UNWTO (2000). Tourism congestion management at natural and cultural sites.Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Viñals, M.J., Morant, M., & Teruel, L. (2014). Confort psicologico y experiencia turística. Casos de estudi de espacios naturales protegidos en la Comunitat Valencia (España). Boletín de la Asociación Geógrafos Española, 65, 293–316.

Viñals, M.J., Mayor, M., Martínez-Sanchís, I., Teruel, L., Alonso-Monasterio, P. & Morant, M. (2017). Sustainable Tourism and Heritage. Enhancinh and Planning tools.Universitat Politècnica de València.

Web Accessibility Initiative. (2015). W3C-Web Accessibility Initiative. Retrieved 20 de February 2016, fromhttps://www.w3.org/WAI

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Universitat Politècnica de València

Official journal of Spanish Society of Virtual Archaeology

e-ISSN: 1989-9947