UAV photogrammetry for archaeological site survey. 3D models at the Hierapolis in Phrygia (Turkey)

Filiberto Chiabrando, Francesco D'Andria, Giulia Sammartano, Antonia Spanò

Abstract

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry has shown a very rapid development in many fields, especially in archaeological excavation areas and architectural complexes, where it offers a detailed generation of three-dimensional (3D) data including the possibility of updating over time. It also proves to be a very flexible tool applicable to many types of complex areas with a variety of different features. The use of aerial acquisition provides highly effective results, adding to both rapid capture and lower costs. In fact, today in the field of archaeological research, great efforts are invested in the generation of very large-scale models and orthophotos, and the technology seems to promise further future developments, not only from the terrestrial (orthogonal) point of view, but also from the nadiral direction from a low altitude, as a preferential and often optimal point of view. Here an effective workflow for photogrammetric product generation is presented for selected case studies in some monumental areas of ancient Hierapolis in Phrygia (Turkey), in which the Italian Archaeological Mission of Hierapolis (MAIER) has been working since the 1960s. The recent experiences achieved by UAV photogrammetry are quite innovative. The variety and complexity of the buildings, as well as the height of their ruins, offer numerous challenges, which are interesting to deal with. The 3D aerial survey was performed for multiple purposes with the eBee system by Sensefly. Specific attention was paid to the digital surface model (DSM) and aerial orthoimages of three test areas: the Plutonium area; the Thermal Bath-Church; and the Necropolis. Starting from the same technical approach, a comparative assesment among the three sites was carried out, taking into account the specific goals, the type of the structure and the terrain conformation.


Keywords

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); Digital surface model (DSM); Aerial photogrammetry; Archaeological Heritage; 3D modelling; Data integration

Full Text:

PDF

References

Aicardi, I., Chiabrando, F., Grasso, N., Lingua, A. M., Noardo, F., & Spanò, A. (2016). UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY WITH OBLIQUE IMAGES: FIRST ANALYSIS ON DATA ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLI-B1, 835–842. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XLI-B1-835-2016

Aicardi, I., Boccardo, P., Chiabrando, F., Donadio, E., Lingua, A., Maschio, P., Noardo, F. & Spanò, A. (2015). Modelli 3D multisensore per l'acropoli segusina. In: L'arco di Susa e i monumenti della propaganda imperiale in età augustea. Segusium (pp. 195-216) - Susa, Italy: Società di Ricerche e Studi Valsusini.

Alçiçek, M. C. (2007). Tectonic development of an orogen-top rift recorded by its terrestrial sedimentation pattern: the Neogene Eşen Basin of southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 200, 117–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2007.04.003

Astori, B., Bonfanti, C., Chiabrando, F., & Spano, A. (2004). Gis application for knowledge and preservation of Hierapolis of Phryigia site. International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XXXV (Part B), 354-359. Bastonero P., Donadio E., Chiabrando F., & Spanò A. (2014). Fusion of 3D models derived from TLS and image-based techniques for CH enhanced documentation. ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, II-5, 73-80. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsannals-II-5-73-2014

Chiabrando, F., Lingua, A., Maschio, P., & Teppati Losè, L. (2017). The influence of flight planning and camera orientation in UAVs photogrammetry. A test in the area of Rocca San Silvestro (LI), TUSCANY. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII-2/W3, 163–170. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W3-163-2017

Chiabrando, F., Spanò, A. T., Sammartano, G., & Teppati Losè, L. (2017). UAV oblique photogrammetry and lidar data acquisition for 3D documentation of the Hercules Fountain. Virtual Archaeology Review, 8(16), 83. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2017.5961

Chiabrando, F., D'Andria, F., Sammartano, G., & Spanò A. (2016). 3D modelling from UAV data in Hierapolis of Phrigia (TK). In: Proceedings of 8th International Congress on Archaeology, Computer Graphics, Cultural Heritage and Innovation ‘ARQUEOLÓGICA 2.0' (pp. 347-349). Valencia, Spain.

Colomina, I., & Molina, P. (2014). Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 92, 79-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.02.013

D’Andria F., Scardozzi G., & Spanò A. (Eds.) (2008). Atlante di Hierapolis di Frigia, Istanbul: Ege Yayinlari.

D’Andria, F. (2013). Il Ploutonion a Hierapolis di Frigia. Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 63, 157-217.

D’Andria, F. (2015). Terme Chiesa. In G. Scardozzi (Ed.), Nuovo atlante di Hierapolis di Frigia, Hierapolis di frigia VII, Istanbul: Yayinlari.

D’Andria F. (2016). Le attività della MAIER - Missione Archeologica Italiana a Hierapolis, 2007-2011.In: F . D’Andria, M. P. Caggia & T. Ismaelli (Eds.), Hierapolis Di Frigia VIII, Le Attività delle Campagne di Scavo Restauro 2007-2011. Istanbul: Yayinlari.

Fiorillo, F., Jiménez Fernández-Palacios, B., Remondino, F., & Barba, S. (2013). 3D Surveying and modelling of the Archaeological Area of Paestum, Italy. Virtual Archaeology Review, 4(8), 55-60. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2013.4306

Invernizzi, S., Spanò A., & Alferi C. (2014). Combined Laser Surveying and Finite Element Modeling for The Structural Assessment of Masonry Structures at the Hierapolis Outer Bath Complex. In: 9th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Construction SAHC2014, Mexico City, 15-17 Ottobre 2014.

Krauss, K. (1997). Photogrammetry, Volume II, Advanced Methods and Applications (4th ed). Bonn, Germany: Dummler’s Verlag.

Kersten, T. P., & Lindstaedt, M. (2012). Potential of Automatic 3D object reconstruction from multiple Images for applications in Architecture, Cultural Heritage and Archaeology. International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era, 399-420. Multi Science Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1260/2047-4970.1.3.399

Mcglone, J. C., Mikhail, E. M., & Bethel, J. (2004). Manual of Photogrammetry, (5th ed). Bethesda, MD, USA: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

Moussa, W., Abdel-Wahab, M., & Fritsch, D. (2012). An Automatic Procedure for Combining Digital Images and Laser Scanner Data. – The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences; Melbourne, Australia, XXXIX(Part B5), 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-34234-9_8

Panarelli, P. (2016). Il cosiddetto “Santuario delle Sorgenti” (Ploutonion): le attività di scavo 2008-2011. In F . D’Andria, M. P. Caggia & T. Ismaelli (Eds.), Hierapolis Di Frigia VIII, Le Attività delle Campagne di Scavo Restauro 2007-2011. Yayinlari, Istanbul.

Piras, M., Di Pietra, V., & Visintini, D. (2017). 3D modeling of industrial heritage building using COTs system : test, limits and performances. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII(September), 4–7.

Rinaudo, F. Chiabrando, F. Lingua, A., & Spanò A. T. (2012). Archaeological site monitoring: UAV photogrammetry can be an answer. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XXXIX(B5), 583-588 https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XXXIX-B5-583-2012

Remondino, F., Barazzetti, L., Nex, F., Scaioni, M., & Sarazzi, D. (2011). UAV photogrammetry for mapping and 3D modeling–current status and future perspectives. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 38-1/C22, 25-31.

Ritti, T. (1985). Fonti letterarie ed epigrafiche (Hierapolis – Scavi e ricerche, I). Roma, Italy: Giorgio Bretschneider Editore.

Ronchetta, D. (2015). Necropoli Nord. In: Scardozzi (Ed), Nuovo atlante di Hierapolis di Frigia, Hierapolis di Frigia VII. Istanbul: Yayinlari.

Ruiz Sabina, J., Gallego Valle, D., Peña Ruiz, C., Molero García, J., & Gómez Laguna, A. (2015). Aerial Photogrammetry by drone in archaeological sites with large structures. Methodological approach and practical application in the medieval castles of Campo de Montiel. Virtual Archaeology Review, 6(13), 5-19. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2015.4366

Sauerbier, M., & Eisenbeiss, H. (2010). UAVs for the documentation of archaeological excavations. International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 38(5), 526-531.

Semeraro, G. (2016), Ricerche nel Santuario di Apollo (2007-2011). In F. D’Andria, M. P. Caggia & T. Ismaelli (Eds.), Hierapolis Di Frigia VIII, Le Attività delle Campagne di Scavo Restauro 2007-2011. Istanbul: Yayinlari.

Semeraro, G. (2012), Ricerche nel santuario di Apollo. In F. D’Andria, M. P. Caggia & T. Ismaelli (Eds), Hierapolis di Frigia, Le attività delle campagne di scavo e restauro 2004-2006. Istanbul: Yayinlari.

Scardozzi G., & Ahrens S. (2015). Le necropoli: inquadramento topografico generale e sviluppo storico. In G. Scardozzi (Ed.), Nuovo atlante di Hierapolis di Frigia, Hierapolis di Frigia VII. Istanbul: Yayinlari.

Strecha, C. (2014). The rayCloud–a vision beyond the point cloud. Fédération Internationale des Géomètres Congress 2014, Engaging the Challenges - Enhancing the Relevance. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 16 – 21 June 2014

Themistocleous, K., Ioannides, M., Agapiou, A., & Hadjimitsis, D. G. (2015). The methodology of documenting cultural heritage sites using photogrammetry, UAV, and 3D printing techniques: the case study of Asinou Church in Cyprus. In Third International Conference on Remote Sensing and Geoinformation of the Environment, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 953510-953510. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2195626

Toschi, I., Ramos, M. M., Nocerino, E., Menna, F., Remondino, F., Moe, K., … Fassi, F. (2017). Oblique photogrammetry supporting 3D urban reconstruction of complex scenarios. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII-1/W1, 519–526. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-1-W1-519-2017

Abstract Views

679
Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License

This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Universitat Politècnica de València

Official journal of Spanish Society of Virtual Archaeology

e-ISSN: 1989-9947