A theatrical double-faced mask preserved at the Museum of Lipari (Messina): study and 3D reconstruction through portable equipment

Dario Giuffrida, Viviana Mollica Nardo, Oreste Adinolfi, Maria Amalia Mastelloni, Rosina Celeste Ponterio

Abstract

The new tools for 3D survey and modelling (as portable scanners and software packages), often in combination with diagnostics, are nowadays able to provide indispensable elements for the study of archaeological artefacts; their applications to museum’s heritage can be also useful to integrate the traditional graphic documentation and contribute to enhancement and dissemination. This paper shows the benefit of using the aforementioned tools to study the peculiar clay mask No. 11114-E, discovered in 1973 in the Greek necropolis of Lipára, inside tomb No. 1558. The specimen, now exhibited in the Classical Section of the Aeolian Museum, is considered unique both in the Aeolian Islands and in the ancient Greek world, as it is the only one merging two half faces attributable to different characters. This feature, unknown at the time of discovery, has been highlighted in 2018, thanks to a restoration intervention by which a hard concretion layer covering a large portion of the mask surface was removed, bringing to light a smiling young half-face next to an old one with Silenic features. In 2019, the mask was surveyed in situ through a portable and performing laser-scanner arm (the QuantumTM FaroArm by FARO) to produce a high-resolution 3D model useful to enhance the reading of the two halves (not evident enough, due to its state of preservation). The data processing was performed using the Geomagic Wrap software, able to align and merge multiple scans into a single model and to export results in multiple formats, easily shareable and viewable in free software or via the web. Finally, thanks to this method, the successful generation of a digital replica was performed; the resulting replica is useful for dissemination and as a support for the hypothetical reconstruction of the two prototypes taken as models by the craftsman who created the mask.

Highlights:

  • A 'mobile laboratory’ consisting of portable equipment has been set up to perform 3D metric surveys on a selection of artefacts preserved at the Museum of Lipari.

  • By means of an ultra-precision laser-scanner arm, a 3D survey on a miniaturistic double-faced mask, belonging to the classical theatrical terracotta, has been performed.

  • A geometrically accurate and realistic 3D final model has been created. This helped the study and reconstruction of the two characters composing the mask.


Keywords

3D digitisation; theatrical masks; portable laser-scanner; digital museums; 3D documentation; digital archaeology; 3D reconstruction

Full Text:

PDF

References

Alby, E., Vigouroux, E., & Elter, R. (2019). Implementation of survey and three-dimensional monitoring of archaeological excavations of the Khirbat al-Dusaq site, Jordan. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII-2/W15, 41–47. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W15-41-2019

Barba, S. (2008). Tecniche digitali per il rilievo di contatto. Salerno: CUES.

Barba, S., Fiorillo F., Ortiz Coder P., D'Auria S., & De Feo E. (2011). An application for cultural heritage in Erasmus placement. Surveys and 3D cataloging archaeological finds, in Mérida (Spain). The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XXXVIII-5/W16, 213–218. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XXXVIII-5-W16-213-2011

Barbanera, M. (2018). Introduzione. Nella vita sta già la morte: Ade e Dioniso sono uguali. Sapienza Università di Roma: Scienze Dell’antichità (Vol. 24.3).

Barrile, V., Fotia, A., Ponterio, R., Mollica Nardo, V., Giuffrida, D., & Mastelloni, M.A. (2019). A combined study of art works preserved in the archaeological museums: 3D survey, spectroscopic approach and augmented reality. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII-2/W11, 201–207. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W11-201-2019

Bearzot C., Landucci F., & Zecchini G. (2007). L’Onomasticòn di Giulio Polluce: tra lessicografia e antiquaria, vita e pensiero. Italy: Vicenza.

Bernabò Brea, L., & Cavalier, M. (1981). Menandro e il teatro greco nelle terracotte liparesi. Genova: SAGEP.

Bernabò Brea, L., & Cavalier, M. (1991). Meligunìs Lipára, V. Scavi nella necropoli greca di Lipari. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider.

Bernabò Brea, L., & Cavalier, M. (1965). Meligunìs Lipára, II. La necropoli greca e romana nella contrada Diana. Palermo.

Bernabò Brea, L., & Cavalier, M. (2000). Meligunìs Lipára, X. Scoperte e scavi archeologici nell’area urbana e suburbana di Lipari. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider.

Bernabò Brea, L., & Cavalier, M. (2001). Maschere e personaggi del teatro greco nelle terrecotte liparesi. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider.

Bernabò Brea, L., & Cavalier, M. (2001). Meligunis Lipara. XI. Gli scavi nella necropoli greca e romana di Lipari nell'are del terreno vescovile. Palermo: L’Erma di Bretschneider.

Bernabò Brea, L., (1974). Maschere della commedia nuova di Lipari e di Centuripe. Dioniso», 45(1971/74), 167-180.

Bernabò Brea, L., Coen, C., & Descœudres J. (1992). Masks and characters of the Greek theatre in the terracottas of ancient Lipara. Mediterranean Archaeology, 5/6, 23–31. https://www.jstor.org/stable/i24666700

Bertacchini, P. A., Bilotta, E., Pantano, P. S., Battiato, S., Cronin, M., Blasi, G. D., Talarico A., & Tavernise, A. (2007). Modelling and Animation of Theatrical Greek Masks in an Authoring System. Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference, Trento, Italy. https://doi.org/10.2312/LocalChapterEvents/ItalChap/ItalianChapConf2007/191-198

Bitossi, G., Giorgi, R., Mauro, M., Salvadori, B., & Dei, L., (2006). Spectroscopic techniques in cultural heritage conservation: a survey. Journal Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 40(3), 187-228. https://doi.org/10.1081/ASR-200054370

Cavalier, M. 1999. La fondazione della Lipàra cnidia, in La colonisation grecque en Méditerranée occidentale, Actes de la rencontre scientifique en hommage à Georges Vallet (pp. 293-302). Rome.

Clementi, C., Miliani, C., Romani, A., Santamaria, U., Morresi F., Mlynarska, K., Favaro, G. (2009). In-situ fluorimetry A powerful non-invasive diagnostic technique for natural dyes used in artefacts. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 71(5), 2057– 2062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2008.08.006

Crisà, A. 2008. Maschere teatrali nella Sicilia settentrionale: tra collezionismo antiquario e ricerca archeologica Stratagemmi. Prospettive Teatrali 8, 11-45.

De Cesare, M., & Portale, E. C., (2019). Maschere e imagerie teatrale nella necropoli liparese di IV-III sec. a.C.: oggetti e immagini in contesto. Scienze dell'Antichità, 24(3), 99-139.

Fatta, F., Marraffa, A. (2018). The Classical Theatre and the Material Culture. The Example of Lipari’s Masks. In: Amoruso G. (eds) Putting Tradition into Practice: Heritage, Place and Design. INTBAU 2017. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 3. Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57937-5_70

Fazio, L., & Lo Brutto, M. (2020), 3D survey for the archaeological study and virtual reconstruction of the “Sanctuary of Isis” in the ancient Lilybaeum (Italy). Virtual Archaeology Review, 11(22), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2020.11928

Giuffrida D., Mollica Nardo, V., Giacobello, F., Adinolfi, O., Mastelloni, M. A., Toscano, G., & Ponterio R. C. (2019). Combined 3D surveying and raman spectroscopy techniques on artifacts preserved at archaeological museum of Lipari. Heritage, 2, 2017-2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030121

Giuffrida, D. (2019). A double faced mask from Lipari. Retrieved from https://skfb.ly/6RuNM

Graepler, D. (1997). Tofiguren in Grab. Fundkontexte hellenistischer Terrakotten aus des Nekropole von Tarant, Munich.

Gonizzi Barsanti, S., & Guidi, G. (2013). 3D digitization of museum content within the 3dicons project. ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, II-5/W1. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsannals-II-5-W1-151-2013

Hess, M., & Robson, S. (2012). 3D imaging for museum artefacts: a portable test object for heritage and museum documentation of small objects. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XXXIX-B5,103-108. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XXXIX-B5-103-2012

Ingoglia, C., (2007). La necropoli greco-romana di Lipari: storia degli scavi e prospettive di ricerca. Sicilia Antiqua, 4.

La Torre, G. F. (2019). Theatrical masks and the cult of Dionysus in Lipari. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7(1) Suppl. https://doi.org/10.6092/2282-1619/2019.7.2243

Marraffa, A. (2017). La Cultura Materiale del Mediterraneo Studio e Analisi Delle Maschere Liparote di Argomento Teatrale Della Coroplastica Magno-Greca per la Compilazione di un Protocollo (digitale) e di Integrazione Dati. Ph.D. Thesis, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.

Martinelli, M. C., & Vilardo, R. (2019). Through the theatrical mask. The Archaeological Museum of Lipari. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7(1) Suppl. https://doi.org/10.6092/2282-1619/2019.7.2245

Martinelli, M. C., & Mastelloni, M. A. (2015). Isole Eolie. Il museo archeologico. Palermo: Assessorato dei Beni Culturali e dell’Iidentità Siciliana.

Mastelloni, M. A. (2018). Le maschere fittili di Lipari: nuove riflessioni sulle espressioni artigianali liparesi di IV e III sec. a.C., Dialoghi sull’Archeologia della Magna Grecia e del Mediterraneo (pp. 709–720). Pandemos Editore: Paestum, Italy.

Mastelloni, M. A., & Spigo U. (1998). Agli albori della ricerca archeologica nelle Eolie: scavi e scoperte a Lipari nel XIX secolo. Palermo: Regione siciliana.

Mastelloni, M. A. (2015). Volti divini e figure umane a Lipára, in Eadem (a cura di). In Lipára ed il teatro in età tardoclassica ed ellenistica (pp. 13-38). Palermo: Regione siciliana.

Montusiewicz, J., Barszcz, M., & Dziedzic, K. (2019). Photorealistic 3D Digital Reconstruction of a Clay Pitcher. Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal, 13(4), 255-263. https://doi.org/10.12913/22998624/113276

Musumeci, A. (2010). Le terracotte figurate dalla necropoli di contrada Casino in Centuripe (pp. 39-114). Enna: IBAM Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali CNR.

Nishanbaev, I. (2020). A web repository for geo-located 3D digital cultural heritage models. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, 16, e00139, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.daach.2020.e00139

Ridgway, D. (2004). The Archaeology of the Aeolian Islands. The Classical Review, 54(1), 214–215. https://doi.org/10.1093/cr/54.1.214

Russo, M., Remondino, F., & Guidi, G. (2011). Principali tecniche e strumenti per il rilievo tridimensionale in ambito archeologico. Archeologia e calcolatori, 22, 169-198.

Schwarzmaier, A., (2011). Die Masken aus der Nekropole von Lipari: Palilia 21. Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag.

Santos, P., Ritz, M., Fuhrmann, C., & Fellner, D. (2017). 3D mass digitization: a milestone for archeological documentation. Virtual Archaeology Review, 8(16), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2017.6321

Simon, K., Michelle, A., & Scott, C. (2009). Close-Range 3D Laser Scanning and Virtual Museums: Beyond Wonder Chambers and Cabinets of Curiosity? In: Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Williamsburg, Virginia.

Tucci, G., Cini, D. & Nobile, A. (2011). Effective 3D digitization of archaeological artifacts for interactive virtual museum. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XXXVIII-5/W, 413–420. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XXXVIII-5-W16-413-2011

Vernant, J. P., & Vidal Naquet, P. (1985). Mito e tragedia. Torino: Einaudi.

White, S. 2015. Virtual Archaeology - The NextEngine desktop laser scanner. Archaeology International, 18, 41–44. http://doi.org/10.5334/ai.1804

Abstract Views

1666
Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

Cited-By (articles included in Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

1. Structured-light 3D scanning of exhibited historical clothing—a first-ever methodical trial and its results
Jerzy Montusiewicz, Marek Miłosz, Jacek Kęsik, Kamil Żyła
Heritage Science  vol: 9  issue: 1  year: 2021  
doi: 10.1186/s40494-021-00544-x



Creative Commons License

This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Universitat Politècnica de València

Official journal of Spanish Society of Virtual Archaeology

e-ISSN: 1989-9947   https://dx.doi.org/10.4995/var