From web 1.0 to web 4.0: the digital heritage platforms for UNESCO’s heritage properties in Indonesia




participative heritage preservation, digital heritage, intangible cultural heritage (ICH), information and communication technology (ICT), mobile apps, heritage dissemination


The advent of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has had and is having a major impact on Indonesian cultural resource management, and on the safeguarding methods of its tangible and intangible cultural heritages. Despite varied levels and visible gaps between rural and urban regions in terms of technology usage, innovative initiatives have been created, which correspond to the needs and expectations of a technology-savvy public. As a starting point, a number of public institutions dealing with tangible cultural heritage (e.g. museums, palaces, temples, World Heritage Sites (WHS)) do use innovative digital tools in order to communicate to various audiences, as well as to enrich visitors’ experience, especially taking into consideration young generations. This paper will firstly examine the role of ICTs in intangible cultural heritage (ICH) (e.g. Batik, Wayang puppet theatre, etc.); secondly, the authors will explain how ICTs can help to communicate and promote the values, history, and significances of ICH products, both for locals and tourists, with the goal of raising awareness on cultural identity. However, the knowledge of ICH still requires contacts with its own communities and is vulnerable, as it can be exposed to excessive cultural commoditization through e-platforms. This study aims at giving an overview and some examples of digital interventions for cultural heritage communication implemented by various stakeholders in Indonesia. In addition, this paper analyses to what extent a participatory approach engaging local communities, academics, private sectors, NGOs and the government, can ensure higher levels of effectiveness and efficiency, hence supporting the conservation of UNESCO tangible/ICH in Indonesia. This paper aims at: (1) presenting the development of digital heritage platforms in Indonesia; (2) providing a grid of analysis of digital heritage knowledge platforms dedicated to UNESCO tangible and ICH in forms of websites and mobile apps.


  • Providing a map of the online presence of UNESCO World Heritage Sites (WHSs) in Indonesia by analysing 180 webpages in English and Indonesian languages.

  • Identifying several types of digital heritage websites in Indonesia based on the set of categories.

  • Classifying a map of 312 mobile apps dealing with UNESCO WHSs and Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) in Indonesia, which were retrieved from Android and iOS platforms.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Puspita Ayu Permatasari, Università della Svizzera italiana

Ph.D. Candidate in Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in Intangible Cultural Heritage and Tourism

Faculty of Communication, Culture and Society

The Institute of Digital Technologies for Communication (ITDxC)

UNESCO Chair in ICT to develop and promote sustainable tourism in World Heritage Sites

USI - Università della Svizzera Italiana,

Lugano - Switzerland

Akhmad Abdul Qohar, PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia

Executive consultant at Qortama Digital Solution and Department of User Experience atPT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia

Arief Faizal Rachman, Trisakti School of Tourism

Department of Tourism Development


Adukaite, A., & Cantoni, L. (2016). Raising awareness and promoting informal learning on World Heritage in Southern Africa: The case of WHACY, a gamified ICT-enhanced tool. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 12(2), 50–67. Retrieved May 24, 2020 from

Aghaei, S., Nematbakhsh, M. A., & Farsani, H. K. (2012). Evolution of the world wide web : from web 1.0 to web 4.0. International Journal of Web & Semantic Technology, 3(1), 1–10.

Albert, M. T. (2012). Perspectives of world heritage: towards future-oriented strategies with the five ‘Cs.’ In M. T. Albert, M. Richon, M. J. Viñals, & A. Witcomb (Eds.), Community development through World Heritage (pp. 16–26). Retrieved May 18, 2020 from

Aljunied, S. M. K. (2004). Shades of Alterity: A study of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles’ discourse on religions amongst the Malays (Doctoral dissertation). National University of Singapore, Singapore. Retrieve May 18, 2020 from

Almeida, F. L. (2017). Concept and dimensions of web 4.0. International Journal of Computers & Technology, 16(7), 7040–7046.

Arya, I. T. (2016). Berlatih tari Cendrawasih [Learning Cendrawasih dance] [Mobile App Software]. Retrieved May 31, 2020 from

Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010). The internet of things: a survey. Computer Networks, 54(15), 2787–2805.

Avi, E. (2014). Gerakan sejuta data budaya dilaunching dari Bandung. [One million cultural database launched in Bandung]. Retrieved May 23, 2020 from

Basole, R. C., & Karla, J. (2012). Value transformation in the mobile service ecosystem: a study of app store emergence and growth. Service Science, 4(1), 24–41.

Berners-Lee, T. (2000). Weaving the Web. The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by its Inventor. New York: Harper Collins.

Blanco, S., Carrión, B., & Lerma, J. L. (2016). Review of augmented reality and virtual reality techniques in Rock Art. In Proceedings of the 8th International Congress on Archaeology, Computer Graphics, Cultural Heritage and Innovation (pp. 176–183).

Boily, L. (2004). Économie du savoir, identités plurielles et nouvelles formes d’exclusion. [Knowledge economy, plural identity and new forms of exclusion]. L’Interculturel et l’Économie à l’Œuvre (pp. 128-153). Paris: Les édition David.

Boonstra, S. N. (2014). Changing wayang scenes Heritage formation and wayang performance practice in colonial and postcolonial Indonesia (Doctoral Dissertation). Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands. Retrieved from

Cantoni, L., Faré, M., Bolchini, D., & Giulieri, F. (2007). European cities and web tourism communication. An indicators-based pilot study. Proceedings of the Travel Distribution Summit, Europe, Research Conference (pp. 45-54). London: Axon Imprint.

Cantoni, L., & Tardini, S. (2006). Internet. London: Routledge.

Cantoni, L., & Tardini, S. (2008). Communicating in the information society: new tools for new practices. In Pier Cesare Rivoltella (Ed.), Digital Literacy. Tools and Methodologies for Information Society (pp. 26–44). New York: IGI Publishing.

Cantoni, L. (2018). Heritage and sustainable tourism. The role and challenge of information and communication technologies. In Silvia De Ascaniis, M. Gravari-Barbas, & L. Cantoni (Eds.), Tourism Management at UNESCO World Heritage Sites, (pp. 68–74). Retrieved from

Charter, V. (1964). International charter for the conservation and restoration. The IInd International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, Venice, 1964. Retrieved May 23, 2020 from

Chi, M. T. H. (1997). Quantifying qualitative analyses of verbal data: a practical guide. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 6(3), 271-315. Retrieved July 13, 2020 from

Dabello, M. (2016). The past in the present. In P. S. Richards, W. A. Wiegand, & M. Dalbello (Eds.), A history of modern librarianship : constructing the heritage of western cultures (Vol. 69, p. 6). California: Libraries Unlimited/ABC-CLIO.

Davida, S., & Cantoni, L. (2015). Co-design of eTourism application. The case of Ilha de Mozambique. Enter eTourism Conference 2015.

Danesi, M. (2013). Encyclopedia of media and communication. University of Toronto Press.

De Ascaniis, S., Della Monica, C., & Cantoni, L. (2017). A social media campaign to raise awareness about violent heritage destruction. The case of #faces4heritage. HTHIC2017 - Heritage, Tourism and Hospitality, Pori (Finland). 27-29 September 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2020 from

De Ascaniis, S., & Cantoni, L. (2013). Artistic and religious experiences in online travel reviews about saint paul outside the walls (Rome). Proceedings of ICOT 2013, International Conference on Tourism, 160–173. Limassol, Cyprus: Konstantinos Andriotis. Retrieved May 29, 2020 from

Demartini, C., & Benussi, L. (2017). Do web 4.0 and industry 4.0 imply education X.0? IT Professional, 19(3), 4–7.

Diarta, I. K. S. (2017). Promotion strategy of Borobudur world cultural heritage site for international tourists. Udayana Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(2), 190.

Elbanna, A. R. (2009). Actor-network theory in ICT research. International Journal of Actor-Network Theory and Technological Innovation, 1(3), 1–14.

Fahmi, I. (2002). The Indonesian digital library network is born to struggle with the digital divide. International Information and Library Review, 34(2), 153–174.

Fitri, I., Ahmad, Y., & Ahmad, F. (2015). Conservation of tangible cultural heritage in Indonesia: a review current national criteria for assessing heritage value. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 184, 71–78.

Garbelli, M. (2015). World heritage sites, tourism, and ICT. Presentation material presented in UNESCO Summer School in ICT for Gastronomic tourism 2015, Milan, Italy.

Garbelli, M., Adukaite, A., & Cantoni, L. (2017). Value perception of world heritage sites and tourism sustainability matters through content analysis of online communications. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 8(3), 417–431.

Gunarto, H. (2007). Digital preservation of Borobudur world heritage. Journal of Ritsumeikan Studies in Language and Culture, 19(2), 263–278. Retrieved from

Indo3one3. (2019). Borobudur explorer. Retrieved May 28, 2020 from

Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture. (1992). Undang – undang no. 5 tahun 1992 tentang benda cagar cudaya [Law number 5, 1992 on cultural heritage]. Retrieved May 28, 2020 from

Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture. (2010). Undang – undang no. 11 tahun 2010 tentang cagar budaya [Law number 11, 2010 on cultural heritage]. Retrieved May 28, 2020 from

Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture. (2017). Undang – undang no. 5 tahun 2017 tentang pemajuan budaya [Law number 5, 2017 on cultural cdvancement]. Retrieved May 28, 2020 from

Indonesian Ministry of State Owned Enterprises. (2019). Rumah Kreatif BUMN [The launching program of creative house for SMEs by Ministry of State Owned Enterprises]. Retrieved May 28, 2020 from

Islam, R., Islam, R., & Mazumder, T. (2010). Mobile application and its global impact. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 10(6), 72–78. Retrieved May 22, 2020 from

Jonathan, C. J., & Tarigan, R. (2016). The effects of e-tourism to the development of tourism sector in Indonesia. CommIT (Communication and Information Technology) Journal, 10(2), 59.

Katwinto, E. (2013). National Museum of Indonesia. Retrieved from Virtual Collection on Asian Masterpieces (VCM). website:

Kéfi, H., & Pallud, J. (2011). Digital heritage the role of technologies in cultural mediation in museums: An actor-network theory view applied in France. Museum Management and Curatorship, 26(3), 273–289.

Kepios. (2019). Everything you need to know about mobile, internet, social media, and e-commerce use in Indonesia in 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2020 from

Krumm, J., Davies, N., & Narayanaswami, C. (2008). User-generated content. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 7(6), 10–11.

Kuswarno, E. (2015). Potret wajah masyarakat digital Indonesia. [The portrait of Indonesian digital society]. Jurnal Communicate, 1(1), 47–54. Retrieved from

Lasi, H., Fettke, P., Kemper, H. G., Feld, T., & Hoffmann, M. (2014). Industry 4.0. Business and Information Systems Engineering, 6(4), 239–242.

Lechner, U., & Schmid, B. F. (2000). Communities and media-towards a reconstruction of communities on media. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, vol.1, 10.

Lewis, G. (2015). Museums and their precursors: a brief world survey. Manual of curatorship (2nd ed., pp. 23–39). Retrieved from

Lizzi, G., Cantoni, L., & Inversini, A. (2011). When a magazine goes online: a case study in the tourism field. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2011 (pp. 355–366).

Logan, R. K. (2002). The five ages of communication. Explorations in Media Ecology, 1(1), 13–20.

Marty, P. F. (2014). Digital convergence and the information profession in cultural heritage organizations: Reconciling internal and external demands. Library Trends, 62(3), 613–627.

Murugesan, S. (2007). Understanding web 2.0. IT Professional, 9(4), 34–41.

Mutinda, R., & Cantoni, L. (2016). The efficacy of heritage interpretation at the lalibela rock-hewn churches in Ethiopia: exploring the need for integrating ICT-mediation. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 4(3), 4(3), 17–28.

O’Hern, M. S., & Kahle, L. R. (2013). The empowered customer: user-generated content and the future of marketing. Global Economics and Management Review, 18(1), 22–30.

Pazia. (2012). Pazia Angklung. Retrieved May 30, 2020 from Google Play website:

Permatasari, P. A., & Cantoni, L. (2019a). Indonesian tourism and batik: an online map. E-Review of Tourism Research, 16(2/3). Retrieved May 21, 2020 from

Permatasari, P. A., & Cantoni, L. (2019b). Mapping mobile apps on Batik: a journey across heritage and fashion. In N. Kalbaska, T. Sádaba, F. Cominelli, & L. Cantoni (Eds.), Fashion Communication in the Digital Age (pp. 166–178). Cham: Springer.

Praharini, A. (2014). Menanti peraturan pelaksanaan dari undang-undang nomor 11 tahun 2010 tentang cagar budaya [The implementation of law no. 11, 2010 on cultural heritage]. RechtsVinding Online, 1–5. Retrieved May 24, 2020 from

Rakhmawati, Y. (2016). Batik Madura: heritage cyberbranding. Jurnal Komunikasi, 10(1), 57.

Raza, A. (2016). Angklung 4D [Mobile App Software]. Retrieved May 30, 2020 from

Redweik, P., Cláudio, A. P., Carmo, M. B., Naranjo, J. M., & Sanjosé, J. J. (2017). Digital preservation of cultural and scientific heritage: Involving university students to raise awareness of its importance. Virtual Archaeology Review, 8(16), 22–34.

Robbins, C. (2010). Beyond preservation: New directions for technological innovation through intangible cultural heritage. International Journal of Education and Development Using ICT, 6(2).

Rosani, I., De Ascaniis, S., Gravari-Barbas, M., & Cantoni, L. (2018). ICTs to train on world heritage and tourism: the case of “Tourism management at UNESCO World Heritage Sites” MOOC (pp. 783-791). Proceedings of Gangemi. Architettura, Urbanistica, Ambiente. World Heritage and Knowledge. Capri.

Schieder, T. K., Adukaite, A., & Cantoni, L. (2014). Mobile apps devoted to UNESCO world heritage sites: a map. In Z. Xiang, & I. Tussyadiah (Eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism (pp. 17–29).

Serrat, O. (2017). Collaborating with Wikis. In Knowledge Solutions (pp. 609–613). Singapore: Springer.

Situngkir, H. (2010). From data to celebration of cultural heritages: preservations, acquisitions, and intellectual property regulations - Munich Personal RePEc Archive. Acquisitions, and Intellectual Property Regulations. Retrieved from

Situngkir, H. (2011). The phylomemetics of Batik. SSRN Electronic Journal, 1–9.

Situngkir, H. (2015). Map of Batik. Retrieved May 27, 2020, from

Situngkir, H. (2019). Reinvensi budaya nusantara di era siber [Reinventing Indonesian culture in cyber era]. Proceeding dan Seminar Nasional Seni dan Desain 2019. Retrieved July 13, 2020 from

Smit, J., Kreutzer, S., Moeller, C., & Carlberg, M. (2016). Industry 4.0. European Parliament, Document No. IP/A/ITRE/2015-02. Retrieved May 25, 2020 from

Stanforth, C. (2007). Using actor-network theory to analyze e-government implementation in developing countries. Information Technologies and International Development, 3(3), 35–60.

Statham, N. (2019). Scientific rigour of online platforms for 3D visualisation of heritage. Virtual Archaeology Review, 10(20), 1–16.

Studio, E. (2018). Cerita anak: Roro Jonggrang dan Bandung Bondowoso [Kids story: princess Roro Jonggrang and prince Bandung Bondowoso] [Mobile application software]. Retrieved May 30, 2020, from

Stuedahl, D. (2007). Convergence, museums and digital cultural heritage. In T. Storsul & D. Stuedahl (Eds.), The Ambivalence towards Convergence: Digitalization and Media Change (pp. 129–144). Sweden: Nordicom.

Surakarta, U. (2016). Wayang fighters by Prodi D3 Teknik Informatika FMIPA UNS Surakarta [Mobile application software]. Retrieved May 30, 2020, from

Tardini, S. (2003). Keywords as passwords to communities. Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation. Amsterdam: Sic Sat.

Titchen, S. M. (1996). On the construction of ‘outstanding universal value’: Some comments on the implementation of the 1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 1(4), 235–242.

UNESCO. (1972). Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage. Retrieved May 30, 2020 from

UNESCO. (2009a). Education and training in Indonesian Batik intangible cultural heritage for elementary, junior, senior, vocational school and polytechnic students, in collaboration with the Batik Museum in Pekalongan. Retrieved from May 26, 2020 from UNESCO ICH website:

UNESCO. (2009b). Indonesian Batik. Retrieved from UNESCO ICH website:

UNESCO. (2017). Memory of UNESCO : Borobudur conservation archives. Retrieved May 24, 2020 from

UNESCO. (2019). The UNESCO 2003 convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage: opportunities for indigenous peoples. Retrieved May 23, 2020 from

Vecco, M. (2010). A definition of cultural heritage: From the tangible to the intangible. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 11(3), 321–324.

Veltman, K. H. (2005). ICT and heritage. E-Journal of the Humanities and Philology Studies (7). Retrieved from

Zulkifli, A. R., & Azhari, A. R. (2018). Perlindungan objek pemajuan kebudayaan menurut undang-undang nomor 5 tahun 2017. [Protection of Cultural Progress Object pursuant to Law Number 5 Year 2017]. Doktrina Journal of Law, 1(1), 56–58.




How to Cite

Permatasari, P. A., Qohar, A. A., & Rachman, A. F. (2020). From web 1.0 to web 4.0: the digital heritage platforms for UNESCO’s heritage properties in Indonesia. Virtual Archaeology Review, 11(23), 75–93.