A functional analysis of two 3D-scanned antique pistols from New Zealand
Preservation of historical weapons requires continual and careful maintenance. Digital three-dimensional (3D) scanning can assist in preservation and analysis by generating a 3D computer model. New Zealand presents a special case for historical preservation, owing to the rapid import of European goods in a culture previously unexposed to metalworking. This, and the subsequent British colonization, led to upheaval and war. The most intense conflict between British and Maori forces was in the New Zealand Land Wars of the mid-19th century. The primary handheld firearms used in this period were black-powder muzzle-loaders, and the variety of armed factions involved in the war resulted in an eclectic range of weapons used. Two antique muzzle-loading pistols from this period were scanned and analyzed. Insights were gained into the history of double-barreled muzzle-loading pistols and transitional revolvers. The double-barreled pistol was determined to have been a flintlock pistol from a century prior to the Land Wars, later converted to percussion cap ignition. The transitional revolver was an intermediate step between the multi-barrel pepperbox pistol and the “true” revolver, but it remained in use throughout the Victorian era. Both types of firearms were effectively obsolete elsewhere in the world by the time of the Land Wars, but the conflict created a demand for a variety of weapons. While the pistols analyzed in this study are decommissioned and no longer in working order, the 3D models made from the samples afforded a unique glimpse into New Zealand’s history. The methodology detailed over the course of the study can be applied to other historical firearms in order to facilitate preservation, investigation, and experimentation.
Preservation of historical machines requires continual maintenance, including replacement of worn or missing parts.
A combination of 3D scanning and digital models was used to analyze two antique pistols from New Zealand: a converted flintlock pistol and a transitional revolver.
The method of making and analyzing digital models detailed in this study offers a way to facilitate historical preservation, experimental archaeology, and functional analysis.
Belich, J. (2013). The New Zealand wars and the Victorian interpretation of racial conflict. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
Dalton, B. J. (1966). A new look at the Maori wars of the sixties. Australian Historical Studies, 12(46), 230-247. https://doi.org/10.1080/10314616608595324
Dean, P. J., & Moss, T. (2018). War and society in Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania. In M. Muehlbauer, & D. Ulbrich (Eds.), The Routledge history of global war and society (pp. 32-44). New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315725192-4
Denix (n.d.). Double-barrelled turn-over pistol, UK, 1750. (Denix S. A.) Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://www.denix.es/en/catalogue/historical-weapons-xvi-xix-c/pistols/1264
Edessa, D. M. (2016). A framework for Hull form reverse engineering and geometry integration into numerical simulations (Doctoral thesis, University of Rostock).
Estalayo, E., Aramendia, J., Matés Luque, J. M., & Madariaga, J. M. (2019). Chemical study of degradation processes in ancient metallic materials rescued from underwater medium. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 50(2), 289-298. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.5553
Fiorenza, L., Yong, R., Ranjitkar, S., Hughes, T., Quayle, … Adams, J. W. (2018). The use of 3D printing in dental anthropology collections. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 167(2), 400-406. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23640
Frasier, C. (2011, July 28). Meet the Iconics: Lirianne. Paizo Blog. Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://paizo.com/community/blog/v5748dyo5lcfb?Meet-the-Iconics-Lirianne
Fritsch, D., & Klein, M. (2018a). 3D preservation of buildings-Reconstructing the past. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 77(7), 9153-9170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-017-4654-5
Fritsch, D., & Klein, M. (2018). Design of 3D and 4D apps for cultural heritage preservation. In M. Ioannides (Ed.), Digital cultural heritage. Lecture notes in computer science (pp. 211-226). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75826-8_18
Garth Vincent Antique Arms & Armour. (n.d.). A cased transitional revolver. (Hat Trick Media) Retrieved May 21, 2019, from https://www.garthvincent.com/a-cased-transitional-revolver
Garth Vincent Antique Arms & Armour. (n.d.). Garth Vincent-Durs Egg over and under flintlock pistol. (Hat Trick Media) Retrieved May 20, 2019, from https://www.garthvincent.com/a-fine-12-bore-flintlock-over-and-under-pistol-by-d.egg%2c-circa-1800
Gil-Melitón, M., & Lerma, J. L. (2019). Historical military heritage: 3D digitisation of the Nasri sword attributed to Ali Atar. Virtual Archaeology Review, 10(20), 52-69. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2019.10028
Gojanović, M. D. (1995). Fatal firearm injuries caused by handmade weapons. Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine, 2(4), 213-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/1353-1131(95)90006-3
Hackelton, M. W. (2019). History of Pemaquid Maine - Jamestown. Maine History Documents, p. 247.
Hacker, B. C. (1994). Military institutions, weapons, and social change: Toward a new history of military technology. Technology and Culture, 35(4), 768-834. https://doi.org/10.2307/3106506
Hejna, P., Šafr, M., Zátopková, L., & Straka, L. (2012). Complex suicide with black powder muzzle loading derringer. Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology, 8(3), 296-300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12024-011-9304-z
Hogg, I. V. (1980). Complete illustrated encyclopedia of the world's firearms. London: New Burlington Books.
Hsiao, K. H., & Yan, H. S. (2012). Structural synthesis of ancient Chinese Chu State repeating crossbow. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I, (1), 749-758. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4141-9_67
International Standards Organization. (1994). ISO 10303-21. Automation systems and integration - Product data representation and exchange. ISO.
Jones, K. P. (2019). An examination of flintlock components at Fort St. Joseph. Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University.
Kohanoff, A. (2019). (Flint) Lock, stock and two smoking barrels: 18th 19th century gunflints from Dutch and British archaeological contexts (Master's thesis, University of Leiden). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1887/76159
Kolesnik, A., & Holubieva, I. (2018). Gunflints from 16th/17th century archaeological assemblages from the central part of the Severskiy Donets River (south-eastern Ukraine). Archäologische Informationen, 41, 131-148. https://doi.org/10.11588/ai.2018.0.56939
Kumar, S., Snyder, D., Duncan, D., Cohen, J., & Cooper, J. (2003). Digital preservation of ancient cuneiform tablets using 3D-scanning. Proceedings of the International Conference on 3-D Digital Imaging and Modeling, 4(1), 326-333. https://doi.org/10.1109/IM.2003.1240266
Lee, H. C., & Meng, H. H. (2011). The development of witness plate method for the determination of wounding capability of illegal firearms. Forensic Science Journal, 10, 19-28. https://doi.org/10.1037/e527062006-001
Leoni, J. B. (2014). Obsolete muskets, lethal remingtons: Heterogeneity and firepower in weapons of the Frontier War, Argentina, 1869-1877. Journal of Conflict Archaeology, 9(2), 93-115. https://doi.org/10.1179/1574077314Z.00000000033
Menna, F., Nocerino, E., & Scamardella, A. (2011a). Reverse engineering and 3D modelling for digital documentation of maritime heritage. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XXXVIII-5/W16, 245-252. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-xxxviii-5-w16-245-2011
Menna, F., Nocerino, E., Del Pizzo, S., Scamardella, A., & Ackermann, S. (2011b). Underwater photogrammetry for 3D modeling of floating objects: The case study of a 19-foot motor boat. Sustainable Maritime Transportation and Exploitation of Sea Resources, 537(544), 537-544. https://doi.org/10.1201/b11810-82
Neumüller, M., Reichinger, A., Rist, F., & Kern, C. (2014). 3D printing for cultural heritage: Preservation, accessibility, research and education. In M. Ioannides, & E. Quak (Eds.), 3D Research Challenges in Cultural Heritage. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (vol. 8355, pp. 119-134). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44630-0_9
O'Brien, B., & Garcia, R. (2005). Conservation treatment of a pepperbox pistol at the Western Australian Maritime Museum. AICCM Bulletin, 29(1), 58-62. https://doi.org/10.1179/bac.2005.29.1.006
O'Malley, V., & Kidman, J. (2018). Settler colonial history, commemoration and white backlash: Remembering the New Zealand Wars. Settler Colonial Studies, 8(3), 298-313. https://doi.org/10.1080/2201473X.2017.1279831
Pejić, P., & Krasić, S. (2016). Creation of virtual 3D models of the existing architectonic structures using the web resources. Spatium, 35, 30-36. https://doi.org/10.2298/SPAT1635030P
Perdekamp, M. G., Braunwarth, R., Kromeier, J., Nadjem, H., Pollak, S., & Thierauf, A. (2013). Muzzle-loading weapons discharging spherical lead bullets: Two case studies and experimental simulation using a skin-soap composite model. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 127(4), 791-797. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-012-0808-1
Perdekamp, M. G., Glardon, M., Kneubuehl, B. P., Bielefeld, L., Nadjem, H., … & Pircher, R. (2015). Fatal contact shot to the chest caused by the gas jet from a muzzle-loading pistol discharging only black powder and no bullet: Case study and experimental simulation of the wounding effect. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 129(1), 125-131. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-014-1064-3
Reilly, R. F. (2016). Medical and surgical care during the American Civil War, 1861-1865. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, 29(2), 138-142. https://doi.org/10.1080/08998280.2016.11929390
Rojas-Sola, J. I., & de la Morena-de la Fuente, E. (2018). Digital 3D reconstruction of Betancourt's historical heritage: The dredging machine in the Port of Kronstadt. Virtual Archaeology Review, 9(18), 44-56. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2018.7946
Rojas-Sola, J., Galán-Moral, B., & de la Morena-de la Fuente, E. (2018). Agustín de Betancourt's double-acting steam engine: Geometric modeling and virtual reconstruction. Symmetry, 10(8), 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10080351
Russell, C. (2016). 3D Hub. (iDigital Ltd) Retrieved 2019, from https://www.3dhub.co.nz
Stanco, F., Battiato, S., & Gallo, G. (2011). Digital imaging for cultural heritage preservation: Analysis, restoration, and reconstruction of ancient artworks. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Steyn, L. (2018). Historical overview of the military museums of the South African Department of Defence. South African Museums Association Bulletin, 40(1), 31-42. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC-14726b4189
The Diagram Group. (2007). The new weapons of the world encyclopedia. New York: St. Martin's Griffin.
Thivierge, M. M. (2017). Dealing with the dead and wounded: Field medicine and the American Civil War. The General: Brock University Undergraduate Journal of History, 2, 74-84. https://doi.org/10.26522/gbuujh.v2i0.1478
Urlich, D. U. (1970). The introduction and diffusion of firearms in New Zealand. Journal of the Polynesian Society, 79(4), 399-410.
Vrubel, A., Bellon, O. R., & Silva, L. (2009). A 3D reconstruction pipeline for digital preservation. Proceedings from the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (pp. 2687-2694). https://doi.org/10.1109/CVPR.2009.5206586
Wachowiak, M. J., & Karas, B. V. (2009). 3D scanning and replication for museum and cultural heritage applications. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, 48(2), 141-158. https://doi.org/10.1179/019713609804516992
Wei, O. C., Chin, C. S., Majid, Z., & Setan, H. (2010). 3D documentation and preservation of historical monument using terrestrial laser scanning. Geoinformation Science Journal, 10(1), 73-90.
Wirihana, R., & Smith, C. (2019). Historical trauma, healing and well-being in Māori communities. MAI Journal, 3(3), 197-210.
Zellem, R. T. (1985). Wounded by bayonet, ball, and bacteria: Medicine and neurosurgery in the American Civil War. Neurosurgery, 17(5), 850-860. https://doi.org/10.1227/00006123-198511000-00024
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Universitat Politècnica de València
Official journal of Spanish Society of Virtual Archaeology
e-ISSN: 1989-9947 https://dx.doi.org/10.4995/var