Platforms of knowledge: architectural heritage practice and the information age in South Africa
The intellectual basis for preservation and conservation is formed by the study, record and dissemination of the works of humanity. Due to the negative impacts of exponential city growth, through densification and the impact of climate change, more considered design approaches need to be made for the reuse and adaptation of buildings in historical contexts. The fast pace of project design, and implementation, in the 21st century, has fostered the need for directly accessible architectural heritage knowledge. Therefore, architectural heritage practice demands access to curated information to ensure considered, and appropriate, design responses. This is important, not only for heritage and other related practitioners, but also for researchers and students. The advent of the Information Age initiated new methodologies for archiving knowledge. These developments provided architectural heritage practice with extended platforms of knowledge, either born-digital or founded on analogue principles. But what are these digital architectural heritage knowledge platforms in South Africa? Where are they located and how is information curated? How accessible is the information and how useful is it for heritage assessment practitioners? This article will describe the development of analogue architectural platforms and their development into digital formats. Thereafter, the nature of architectural heritage practice in South Africa will be defined through an assessment of legislation and professional practice. Then the types of information needed for architectural heritage practice to be effective will be explained. A selection of currently available architecturally related heritage platforms (with a digital bias) will be located and described, followed by a critique of their effectiveness. A number of case studies will then be highlighted to determine the effectiveness of the work of heritage assessment practitioners. The article will conclude by suggesting ways of adding value to current, and future, digital information platforms to cater to the pressing needs of architectural heritage practice in South Africa.
Association of Professional Heritage Practitioners (APHP). 2011. Code of Conduct for Heritage Assessment Practitioners. Retrieved from https://www.aphp.org.za/aphp-code-conduct
Armstrong, A. R. E. (2006). Architectural Archives/Archiving Architecture: The Digital ERA. Art Documentation: Journal of the Art Libraries Society of North America, 25(2), 12-17. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/27949434 - https://doi.org/10.1086/adx.25.2.27949434
Australia ICOMOS. (2000). The Burra Charter: the Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance: with associated guidelines and code on the ethics of co-existence. Burwood, Vic.: Australia ICOMOS. https://www.icomos.org/australia
Ball, J. (2017). Joburg gets a new online heritage system!. Available from: http://www.theheritageportal.co.za/article/joburg-gets-new-online-heritage-system
Barker, A., Swart, J. & Van Niekerk, K. (2016). The importance of Architectural Archives. Architecture South Africa, 79, 6-9.
Brusaporci, S. (2017). Digital Innovations in Architectural Heritage Conservation: Emerging Research and Opportunities (pp. 1-152). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-2434-2
City of Cape Town. (2019). Environment and heritage education resources. www.capetown.gov.za/Family%20and%20home/education-and-research-materials/graphics-and-educational-material/environment-and-heritage-education-resources.
Department of Arts and Culture. (2010). National policy on the digitisation of heritage resources (draft). South Africa. Retrieved from http://www.archivalplatform.org/images/resources/NATIONAL_POLICY_ON_DIGITISATION_V8.pdf
Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA). (2016). Cultural heritage survey guidelines and assessment tools for protected areas in South Africa. South Africa. Retrieved from https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/ legislations/culturalheritagesurveyguidelines_protectedareas2016_0.pdf
Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. (2013). Assessing cultural heritage significance. Using the cultural heritage criteria. Queensland, Australia. Retrieved from https://www.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0030/ 66693/using-the-criteria.pdf
De Vletter, M. (2019). Don’t Be Afraid of the Digital. Arts, 8(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8010006
Esperdy, G. (2013). Building Data: Field Notes on the Future of the Past. Places Journal, September. https://doi.org/10.22269/130923
Evans, J. & Wilson, Z. (2018). Inclusive repositories and recordkeeping: towards a manifesto. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 24(8), 857-860. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2018.1428671
Hawes, S. E. (2010). Curating Architecture: An Investigation of the Motives and Practice of Architectural Collection and Exhibition with Recommendations for Interpretation of the Architectural Study Collection at Independence National Historical Park. (Masters Thesis). University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. https://repository.upenn.edu/hp_theses/141/
Hu, X., Ng, J., & Xia, S. (2018). User-Centered Evaluation of Metadata Schema for Nonmovable Cultural Heritage: Murals and Stone Cave Temples. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 69(12), 1476–1487. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.24065
Kleinman, K. (2002). Archiving/Architecture. Archival Science 1: 321–332, 2001. Kluwer Academic Publishers. https://www.nyu.edu/classes/bkg/methods/kleinman.pdf https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02438900
Kleyn, L. (2018). Open access research publications and South African Institutional Repositories (IRs) in the context of intellectual property law and practices: and interdisciplinary study. Unpublished M(Phil) (Law) Thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa.
Kotze, P. (1998). In memory of Sophia Gray: Store houses of knowledge. S.A. Architect, Sept/Oct, 43-47.
Liebetrau, P. (Ed). (2010). Managing Digital Collections: A Collaborative Initiative on the South African Framework. National Research Foundation. https://wiki.lib.sun.ac.za/images/5/51/Managing_Digital_Collections.pdf
National Archives and Records Service of South Africa (NARSSA). (2013). Digitisation Strategy. Retrieved from http://www.nationalarchives.gov.za/sites/default/files/National%20Archives%20Digitisation%20Strategy%20-%20approved%20November%202013.pdf
National Heritage Resource Act 25 of 1999 (South Africa) (NHRA). Retrieved from http://www.dac.gov.za/sites/ default/files/Legislations%20Files/a25-99.pdf
Phiri, L. & Suleman, H. (2013). Managing cultural heritage: information systems architecture. http://pubs.cs.uct.ac.za/archive/00001008/01/phiri_iresearch2013_architecture.pdf
Pickover, M. (2014). Patrimony, Power and Politics: Selecting, Constructing and Preserving Digital Heritage Content in South Africa and Africa. http://library.ifla.org/1023/1/138-pickover-en.pdf
Pierce, K. (2011). Collaborative Efforts to Preserve Born-Digital Architectural Records: A Case Study. Art Documentation: Journal of the Art Libraries Society of North America, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Fall 2011), 43-48. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41244064 - https://doi.org/10.1086/adx.30.2.41244064
Redweik, P., Cláudio, A., Carmo, M., Naranjo, J. & Sanjosé, J. (2017). Digital preservation of cultural and scientific heritage: involving university students to raise awareness of its importance. Virtual Archaeology Review, 8(16): 22-34. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2017.4629
Ruiz Gil, J.-A. (2017). Digital heritage training for historians in Europe: a local proposal. Virtual Archaeology Review, 8(17), 56-63. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2017.4726
Smuts, K., Mlungwana, N., & Wiltshire, N. G. (2016). SAHRIS: South Africa’s integrated, web-based heritage management system. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 6(2), 138-152. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCHMSD-01-2016-0002
Waters, D. & Garrett, J. (1996). Preserving Digital Information. Report of the Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information. Washington, DC: The Commission on Preservation and Access and Research Libraries Group. https://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub63/
Willis, A. (1996). The Place of Repositories in the Universe of Architectural Documentation. American Archivist. Vol. 59, Spring. https://americanarchivist.org/doi/pdf/10.17723/aarc.59.2.l54510w443504578 - https://doi.org/10.17723/aarc.59.2.l54510w443504578
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
- There are currently no refbacks.
This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Universitat Politècnica de València
Official journal of Spanish Society of Virtual Archaeology
e-ISSN: 1989-9947 https://dx.doi.org/10.4995/var