The discourse markers indeed, in fact, really and actually and their Spanish equivalents in economy




discourse markers, contrastive analysis, translation, metadiscourse


This article explores the translation procedures followed in the rendering of the adverbials indeedin factreally and actually in a parallel corpus of English texts and their Spanish counterparts in the field of economy. While the adverbials mentioned are all categorized as boosters according to Hyland’s classification of metadiscourse markers (2005) in the source corpus, their Spanish correspondents may fall within other such metadiscourse categories as attitude and hedging markers, for example. The study of these variants contributes to our understanding of the processes involved in the translation of these markers, which seem to correspond to an intention of the translators to provide adequate translated versions so that these texts read as naturally in the target language as possible. Our methodology of inquiry involves corpus linguistics tools in order to interrogate a parallel corpus and retrieve cases of the adverbials indeed, in fact, really and actually. Our approach to discourse markers includes Schiffrin (1987), Fraser (1996), Jucker & Ziv (1998), Aijmer (2002), and especially Buysse (2012), Ghezzi (2014), Carrió-Pastor (2016a, 2016b), and Furkó (2020). Our notion of metadiscourse follows Hyland (2005) from where we have also taken the taxonomy of metadiscourse markers used in the analysis of data to classify findings.  The identification and the classification of the translation procedures rely on Cruz-García (2014). Conclusions report on the most frequent translations procedures and the commonest Spanish forms used to translate the adverbial analysed, including their metadiscourse functions.


Download data is not yet available.


Aijmer, K. (2002). English Discourse Particles (Studies in Corpus Linguistics). Vol. 10. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Alonso-Almeida, F. & Sánchez, A. (2016). "'If they have not the french': translation choices in The Happy Deliverie of Women (1612)", The Translator 22/1, 40-58.

Andersen, G & Fretheim, T. (2000). "Introduction", in G. Andersen & T. Fretheim (eds.), Pragmatic Markers and Propositional Attitude. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1-16.

Berk-Seligson, S. (2002). The Bilingual Courtroom: Court Interpreters in the Judicial Process (Language and Legal Discourse). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Blakemore, D. (2004). "Discourse markers", in L. R. Horn & G. Ward (eds.), The Handbook of Pragmatics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 221-240.

Blakemore, D. & Gallai, F. (2014). "Discourse markers in free indirect style and interpreting", Journal of Pragmatics 60, 106-120.

Bouveret, M. & Carter-Thomas, S. (2020). "More of the same or something different? An analysis of the French discourse marker par ailleurs in academic writing", Journal of Pragmatics 156, 136-148.

Brinton, L. J. (1996). Pragmatic Markers in English. Grammaticalization and Discourse Functions. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Buysse, L. (2012). "So as a multifunctional discourse marker in native and learner speech", Journal of Pragmatics 44/13, 1764-1782.

Carrió-Pastor, M. L. (2016a). A contrastive study of interactive metadiscourse in academic papers written in English and in Spanish, en F. Alonso Almeida, L. Cruz García y V. González Ruiz (Eds.), Corpus-based studies on language varieties. Bern: Peter Lang, pp. 80-102.

Carrió-Pastor, M. L. (2016b). A contrastive study of the hedges used by English, Spanish and Chinese researchers in academic papers, en F. Alonso Almeida et al. (Eds.), Input a word, analyze the world: Selected approaches to Corpus Linguistics. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, pp. 477-492.

Carrió-Pastor, M. L. (2016c). Mitigation of claims in medical research papers: A comparative study of English and Spanish writers. Communication & Medicine, 13: 1-25.

Carrió Pastor, M. L. (2019). Authorial engagement in business emails: a cross-cultural analysis of attitude and engagement markers, en C. Sancho Guinda (Ed.), Engagement in Professional Genres. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 47-65.

Carrió-Pastor, M. L. y Muñiz Calderón, R. (2015). A contrastive analysis of metadiscourse features in business e-mails written by non-native speakers of English. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 173, 214-221.

Crible, L. & Pascual, E. (2020). "Combinations of discourse markers with repairs and repetitions in English, French and Spanish", Journal of Pragmatics 156, 54-67.

Cruz García, L. (2014). "Copy Adaptation, or How to Translate a Source Product for a Target Market", Meta 58/2, 347-372.

Fischer, K. (2006). "Towards an understanding of the spectrum of approaches to discourse particles: introduction to the volume", in K. Fischer (ed.), Approaches to Discourse Particles. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1-20.

Fraser, B. (1990). "An approach to discourse markers", Journal of Pragmatics 14/3, 167-190.

Fraser, B. (1996). "Pragmatic markers", Pragmatics 6, 167-190.

Fraser, B. (1999). "What are discourse markers?", Journal of Pragmatics, 31/7, 931-952.

Furkó, P. B. (2020). Discourse Markers and Beyond Descriptive and Critical Perspectives on Discourse-Pragmatic Devices across Genres and Languages. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ghezzi, C. & Molinelli, P. (2014). "Discourse and pragmatic markers from Latin to the Romance languages: New insights", in C. Ghezzi & P. Molinelli (eds.), Discourse and Pragmatic Markers from Latin to the Romance Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1-9.

Ghezzi, C. (2014). "The development of discourse and pragmatic markers", in C. Ghezzi & P. Molinelli (eds.), Discourse and Pragmatic Markers from Latin to the Romance Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 10-26.

Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English. London: Longman.

Hyland, K. (2005). Metadiscourse. Exploring Interaction in Writing. London, New York: Continuum.

Jucker, A. H. (1993). "The discourse marker well: A relevance theoretical account", Journal of Pragmatics 19/5, 435-452.

Jucker, A. H. & Ziv, Y. (1998). "Discourse markers: Introduction", in A. H. Jucker & Y. Ziv (eds.), Discourse Markers. Description and Theory. Amsterdam, Philadephia: John Benjamins, 1-12.

Lutzky, U. (2012). Discourse Markers in Early Modern English (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series). Vol. 227. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Nyan, T. (2016). Context Construction as Mediated by Discourse Markers. Leiden: BRILL.

Schiffrin, D. (1987). Discourse Markers (Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schourup, L. (2011). "The discourse marker now: A relevance-theoretic approach", Journal of Pragmatics 43/8, 2110-2129.

Torabi Asr, F. & Demberg, V. (2020). "Interpretation of Discourse Connectives Is Probabilistic: Evidence From the Study of But and Although", Discourse Processes 57/4, 376-399.