Is the foreign language class really a more threatening place than the virtual enviroment?
Keywords:Computer Mediated Communication (CMC), blended learning, forum, discussion board,
Computer technology has the potential to provide rich resources for language teaching and learning. As computer access increases, so do new learning technologies in education. This paper is specifically interesed in the case of English language instruction in a Teacher Training Faculty, and blended e-learning components as tools for supporting English language acquisition. Through the analysis of a researcher-developed survey, this study examines and compares students’ feelings and perceptions towards their participation in class and their participation in the online environment with the aim of detecting whether major differences between the two contexts exist. It also seeks to discover the extent to which learners value the online environment within the whole language learning process. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for and relevance of research focusing on this learning format, given the specific characteristics of University education today, in the light of the recent implementation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) at University.
Arnaiz, P., Peñate, M., Bazo, P. (2010). “El efecto de la planificación en la expresión oral en alumnos de primaria”, Porta Linguarum 14: 181-195.
Ayres, R. (2002). Learner attitudes towards the use of CALL, Computer Assisted Language Learning 15/3: 241-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/call.22.214.171.12489
Bradley, T. and Lomicka, L. (2000). “A case study of learner interaction in technology-enhanced language learning environments”. Journal of Educational Computing Research 22/3: 247–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/TCUA-3YUV-B1P5-26P3
Chapelle, C. (2000). Computers applications in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chang, J. (2002). The mask mechanism: A study of anxiety, motivation and communicative competence of Korean learners of English in computer-mediated communication environments. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
Dekhinet, R. (2008). “Online enhanced corrective feedback for ESL learners in higher education”, Computer Assisted Language Learning 21/5: 409–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09588220802447669
Dewaele, J. M. (2005). “Investigating the Psychological and Emotional Dimensions in Instructed Language Learning: Obstacles and Possibilities”. The Modern Language Journal 89/3: 367-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2005.00311.x
Dörnyei, Z. & Skehan, P. (eds.) (2002). Individual differences in second language acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hegelheimer, V. and Chapelle, C.A. (2000). “Methodological issues in research on learnercomputer interactions in CALL”. Language Learning & Technology 4/1: 41-59.
Kraemer, A. (2008). “Formats of distance learning”, in S. Goertler & P. Winke (eds.) Opening doors through distance language education: Principles, perspectives, and practices. San Marcos, TX: Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO), 11–42.
Leasure, A.R., Davis, L., and Thievon, S.L. (2000). Comparison of student outcomes and references in a traditional vs. World Wide Web-based baccalaureate nursing research course, Journal of Nursing Education 39/4: 149–154.
Levy, M. (1997). Computer-assisted language learning: Context and conceptualization. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lim, K. M. and Shen, H. Z. (2006). Integration of computers into an EFL reading classroom. ReCALL 18/2: 212-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0958344006000528
MacIntyre, P. D. and Noels, K. A. (1996). “Using social-psychological variables to predict the use of language learning strategies”, Foreign Language Annals 29/3: 373-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1996.tb01249.x
Martínez-Baztán, A. (2008). La evaluación oral: una equivalencia entre las guidelines de ACTFL y algunas escalas del MCER [Oral evaluation: an equivalence between ACTFL guidelines and some CEFR scales]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
Matheson, K. and Zanna, M.P. (1988). “The impact of computer-mediated communication on self-awareness”. Computers in Human Behavior 4: 221-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0747-5632(88)90015-5
Mitchell, R. and Myles, F. (2004). Second language learning theories (2nd ed.). London: Arnold.
Ortega, L. (1999). “Planning and focus on form in L2 oral performance”, Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21: 108-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0272263199001047
Payne, J.S. and Ross, B.M. (2005). “Synchronous CMC, working memory, and L2 oral proficiency development”, Language Learning and Technology 19/3: 35-54.
Payne, J.S., and Whitney, P.J. (2002). “Developing L2 oral proficiency through synchronous CMC: Output, working memory and interlanguage development”, CALICO Journal 20/1: 7-32.
Petty, L. I., Johnston, J., and Shafer, D. (2004). “Distance education for adult learners”. Retrieved March 1, 2006, from http://www.projectideal.org/pdf/handbook/DEHandbook3rdEdTEXT2!.pdf
Presby, L. (2001). ‘Seven tips for highly effective online courses’, Syllabus 14,17.
Roed, J. (2003). “Language learner behavior in a mutual environment”, Computer Assisted Language Learning 16/2-3: 155-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/call.126.96.36.19980
Sotillo, S. (2000). “Discourse functions and syntactic complexity in synchronous and asynchronous communication”, Language Learning Technology 4/1: 82-119.
Sproull, L., and Kiesler, S. (1991). “Computers, network and work”. Scientific American. Sept 1991, 116-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0991-116
Starr, P. (1997). “Computing our way to educational reform”, The American Prospect 27: 50–60.
Swain, M. (1985). “Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development”, in S. Gass, and C. Madden (eds.) Input in Second Language Acquisition. New York: Newbury House, 235-256.
Swain, M. and Deters. P. (2007) “New Mainstream SLA Theory: Expanded and Enriched”, Modern Language Journal 91: 820-836. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00671.x
Swain, M. and Lapkin, S. (1995). “Problems in Output and the Cognitive Processes They Generate: A Step Toward Language Learning”, Applied Linguistics 16, 371-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/16.3.371
Wallace, P. (1999). The Psychology and the Internet. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511581670
Wang, Y., Chen, N. and Levy, M. (2010). Teacher training in a synchronous cyber face-to-face classroom: characterizing and supporting the online teachers’ learning process. Computer assisted Language Learning 23/4: 277-293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2010.493523
Warschauer, M. (2000). “The changing global economy and the future of English teaching”, TESOL Quarterly 34: 511-535. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3587741
Weininger, M.J. & Shield, L. (2003). “Promoting oral production in a written channel: an investigation of learner”, Computer Assisted Language Learning 16/4: 329-349.
Winke, P.M., & Goertler, S. (2008a). “An introduction to distance language learning”, in S. Goertler & P. Winke (eds.) Opening doors through distance language education: Principles, perspectives, and practices. San Marcos, TX: Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO), 1-10.
Winke, P.M., & Goertler, S. (2008b). “Did we forget someone? Students’ computer access and literacy for CALL”, CALICO Journal 25/3: 482–509.
Yuan, F. & Ellis, R. (2003). “The effects of pre-task planning and online planning on fluency, complexity and accuracy in L2 monologic oral production”, Applied Linguistics 24/1: 1-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/24.1.1
This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.