Automatically Representing TExt Meaning via an Interlingua-based System (ARTEMIS). A further step towards the computational representation of RRG


  • Ricardo Mairal-Usón Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia
  • Francisco Cortés-Rodríguez Universidad de La Laguna



Role and Reference Grammar, computational grammars, the layered structure of the clause, syntactic rules, lexical rules, constructional rules, attribute-value matrix, conceptual modeling


Within the framework of FUNK Lab – a virtual laboratory for natural language processing inspired on a functionally-oriented linguistic theory like Role and Reference Grammar-, a number of computational resources have been built dealing with different aspects of language and with an application in different scientific domains, i.e. terminology, lexicography, sentiment analysis, document classification, text analysis, data mining etc. One of these resources is ARTEMIS (Automatically Representing TExt Meaning via an Interlingua-Based System), which departs from the pioneering work of Periñán-Pascual (2013) and Periñán-Pascual & Arcas (2014).  This computational tool is a proof of concept prototype which allows the automatic generation of a conceptual logical structure (CLS) (cf. Mairal-Usón, Periñán-Pascual and Pérez 2012; Van Valin and Mairal-Usón 2014), that is, a fully specified semantic representation of an input text on the basis of a reduced sample of sentences. The primary aim of this paper is to develop the syntactic rules that form part of the computational grammar for the representation of simple clauses in English. More specifically, this work focuses on the format of those syntactic rules that account for the upper levels of the RRG Layered Structure of the Clause (LSC), that is, the core (and the level-1 construction associated with it), the clause and the sentence (Van Valin 2005). In essence, this analysis, together with that in Cortés-Rodríguez and Mairal-Usón (2016), offers an almost complete description of the computational grammar behind the LSC for simple clauses.


Download data is not yet available.


Boas, Hans C. 2005. “From theory to practice: Frame Semantics and the design of FrameNet” In Semantik im Lexikom , edited by Stefan Langer and Daniel Schnorbusch, 129-160. Tübingen: Narr.

Boas, Hans C., and Ivan Sag, eds. 2012. Sign-Based Construction Grammar. Stanford: CSLI.

Cortés-Rodríguez, Francisco J. 2016. “Towards the computational implementation of Role and Reference Grammar: Rules for the syntactic parsing of RRG Phrasal constituents” Círculo de lingüística aplicada a la comunicación 65, 76-108. [].

Cortés-Rodríguez, Francisco J., and Ricardo Mairal-Usón. 2016. “Building an RRG computational grammar” Onomazein (34), 86-117. DOI: 10.7764/onomazein.34.22

Díaz Galán, Ana C., and M. Carmen Fumero Pérez. 2015. “Developing parsing rules within ARTEMIS: the case of DO auxiliary insertion” In Understanding Meaning and Knowledge Representation: From Theoretical and Cognitive Linguistics to Natural Language Processing, edited by Carlos Periñán-Pascual and Eva Mestre i Mestre, 283-302. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.

Diedrichsen, Elke. 2011. “The theoretical importance of constructional schemas in RRG” In New Perspectives in Role and Reference Grammar, edited by Wataru Nakamura, 168-197. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Diedrichsen, Elke. 2014: “A Role and Reference Grammar Parser for German” In Language Processing and Grammars , edited by Brian Nolan and Carlos Periñán-Pascual, 105-142. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Foley, William A., and Robert D. Jr. Van Valin. 1984. Functional Syntax and Universal Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fumero Pérez, M. Carmen, and Ana C. Díaz Galán. 2017. “ARTEMIS: State of the Art and Future Horizons”. Revista de Lenguas para Fines Específicos 23/1 (2017). In press.

Goldberg, Adele E. 1995. Constructions: A Construction Grammar approach to argument structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goldberg, Adele E. 2006. Constructions at Work. The Nature of Generalization in Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Guest, Elisabeth. 2009. “Parsing using the Role and Reference Grammar paradigm”. [, accessed 19 February 2016].

Mairal-Usón, Ricardo. 2015. “Constructional Meaning representation within a knowledge engineering framework” Review of Cognitive Linguistics 13:1 (2015), 1-27.

Mairal-Usón, Ricardo. 2017. “A computational implementation of idiomatic and non-idiomatic constructions” Signos 50 (94), 241-264.

Mairal-Usón, Ricardo, and Pamela Faber. 2002. “Functional Grammar and Lexical Templates”. In New perspectives on predicate argument structure in Functional Grammar, edited by R. Mairal-Usón and M.J. Pérez Quintero, 41-98. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Mairal-Usón, Ricardo, and Pamela Faber. 2007. “Lexical templates within a functional cognitive theory of meaning”. Annual Review of Cognitive Linguistics (5), 137-172. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Mairal-Usón, Ricardo, and Pamela Faber. 2017. “A conceptually-oriented approach to semantic composition in RRG”. In The Cambridge Handbook of Role and Reference Grammar, edited by Robert D. Van Valin Jr. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mairal-Usón, Ricardo, and Carlos Periñán-Pascual. 2016. “Representing Constructional Schemata in FunGramKB Grammaticon” In Exploring the Syntax-Semantics Interface, edited by Jens Fleischhauer, Anja. Latrouite and Rainer Osswald, 77-108. Language and Cognition Series, Volume 3. Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf University Press.

Mairal-Usón, Ricardo, Carlos Periñán-Pascual, and María Beatriz Pérez Cabello de Alba. 2012. “La representación léxica. Hacia un enfoque ontológico”. In El Funcionalismo en la Teoría Lingüística. La Gramática del Papel y la Referencia. Introducción, Avances y Aplicaciones, edited by Ricardo Mairal-Usón, Lilián Guerrero, and Carlos González, 85-102. Akal: Madrid.

Mairal-Usón, Ricardo, and Francisco J. Ruiz de Mendoza. 2009. “Levels of description and explanation in meaning construction” In Deconstructing Constructions, edited by Christopher Butler and J. Martín Arista, 53-98. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Martín Díaz, M. Auxiliadora. 2017. “An Account of English YES/NO Interrogative Sentences within ARTEMIS”. Revista de Lenguas para Fines Específicos 23/1 (2017). In press.

Nolan, Brian, and Carlos Periñán-Pascual, eds. 2014. Language processing and grammars. Amsterdam: John Benjamins

Nolan, Brian, and Yasser Salem. 2011. “UniArab;: RRG Arabic-to-English machine translation” In New Perspectives in Role and Reference Grammar, edited by Wataru Nakamura, 312-346. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.

Pavey, Emma. 2010. The Structure of Language. An Introduction to Grammatical Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Periñán-Pascual, Carlos. 2013. “Towards a model of constructional meaning for natural language understanding” In Linking Constructions into Functional Linguistics: The Role of Constructions in a Functional Grammar, edited by Brian Nolan and Elke Diedrichsen, 205-230. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Periñán-Pascual, Carlos, and Francisco Arcas Túnez. 2014. “The implementation of the FunGramKB CLS Constructor in ARTEMIS” In Language Processing and Grammars, edited by Carlos

Periñán-Pascual and Brian Nolan, 165-196. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Periñán-Pascual, Carlos, and Ricardo Mairal-Usón. 2009. “Bringing Role and Reference Grammar to natural language understanding”. Procesamiento del Lenguaje Natural 43, 265-273.

Ruiz de Mendoza, Francisco José, and Alicia Galera. 2014. Cognitive modeling. A linguistic perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Ruiz de Mendoza, Francisco José, and Ricardo Mairal-Usón. 2008. “Levels of description and constraining factors in meaning construction: an introduction to the Lexical Constructional Model”. Folia Linguistica 42 (2), 355-400.

Ruiz de Mendoza, Francisco José, and Ricardo Mairal-Usón. 2011. “Constraints on syntactic alternation: lexical-constructional subsumption in the Lexical-Constructional Model”. In P. Guerrero (ed.) Morphosyntactic Alternations in English. Functional and Cognitive Perspectives. Equinox; 62-82.

Salem, Yasser, A. Hensman, and Brian Nolan. 2008. “Towards Arabic to English machine translation.” ITB Journal 17, 20–31.

Sag, Ivan. A., Thomas Wasow, and Emily. M. Bender. 2003. Syntactic Theory: Formal Introduction. Stanford: CSLI Publications.

Van Valin, Robert D. Jr. 2005. Exploring the Syntax-Semantics Interface. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Van Valin, Robert D. Jr. 2008. “RPs and the nature of lexical and syntactic categories in Role an Reference Grammar”. In Investigations of the Syntax-Semantics-Pragmatics Interface, edited by Robert D.Jr. Van Valin, 161-178. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Van Valin, Robert D. Jr., and Randy LaPolla. 1997. Syntax: Structure, Meaning and Function, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Van Valin, Robert D. Jr., and Ricardo Mairal-Usón. 2014. “Interfacing the Lexicon and an Ontology in a Linking Algorithm” In Theory and Practice in Functional-Cognitive Space, edited by María Ángeles Gómez, Francisco Ruiz de Mendoza and Francisco Gonzálvez-García, 205-228. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 205-228.

Van Valin, Robert D. Jr., and D. Wilkins. 1993. “Predicting syntax from semantics”. In Advances in Role and Reference Grammar, edited by R. D. Jr. Van Valin, 499–534. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.