Analogical reasoning in uncovering the meaning of digital-technology terms: the case of backdoor
The paper substantiates the critical role of analogical reasoning and figurative languge in resolving the ambiguity of cybersecurity terms in various expert communities. Dwelling on the divergent interpretations of a backdoor, it uncovers the potential of metaphor to serve both as an interpretative mechanism and as a framing tool in the ongoing digital technologies discourse. By combining methods of corpus research and frame semantics analysis the study examines the challenges of unpacking the meaning of the contested concept of the backdoor. The paper proposes a qualitatively new metaphor-facilitated mode of interpreting cybersecurity vulnerabilities based on MetaNet deep semantic metaphor analysis and outlines the merits of this hierarchically organized metaphor and frames ontology. The utility of the method is demonstrated through analyzing corpus data and top-down extracting of metaphors (linguistic metaphor – conceptual metaphor – entailed metaphor – inferences) with subsequent identifying of metaphor families dominating the cybersecurity discourse. The paper further claims that the predominant metaphors prompt certain decisions and solutions affecting information security policies.
Betz, David and Stevens, Tim. 2013. "Analogical Reasoning and Cyber Security." Security Dialogue 44, No. 2: 147-164 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1177/0967010613478323
David, Oana and Matlock, Teenie. 2018. "Cross-linguistic automated detection of metaphors for poverty and cancer." Language and Cognition 10 (2018), 467-493. UK Cognitive Linguistics Association. https://doi.org/10.1017/langcog.2018.11
David, Oana. 2016. Metaphor in the grammar of argument realization. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
David, Oana, Lakoff, George, and Stickles, Elise. 2016. "Cascades in metaphor and grammar: A case study of metaphors in the gun debate." Constructions and Frames. 8. 10.1075/cf.8.2.04dav. https://doi.org/10.1075/cf.8.2.04dav
Davies, Mark. 2013. "Corpus of Global Web-Based English: 1.9 billion words from speakers in 20 countries." Available at: http://corpus.byu.edu/glowbe/
Davies, Mark. and Fuchs, Robert. 2015. "Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based English Corpus (GloWbE)." English World-Wide 36(1), 1-28. https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.36.1.01dav
Deignan, Alice. 2005. Metaphor and corpus linguistics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.6
Demjén, Zsófia, Semino, Elena, and Koller, Veronika. 2016. "Metaphors for 'good' and 'bad' deaths." Metaphor and the Social World 6(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1075/msw.6.1.01dem
Dodge, Ellen. K., Hong, Jisup, and Stickles, Elise. 2015. "MetaNet: deep semantic automatic metaphor analysis." Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Metaphor in NLP, 40-49. Denver, Colorado, 5 June 2015. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.3115/v1/W15-1405
Do Dinh, Erik-Lân and Gurevych, Iryna. 2016. "Token-level metaphor detection using neural networks." Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Metaphor in NLP (June), 28-33. https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W16-1104
Dunn, Jonathan. 2013. "What metaphor identification systems can tell us about metaphor-inlanguage." Proceedings of the First Workshop on Metaphor in NLP, Atlanta Georgia, 13 June 2010, 1-10. Available at: http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W13-0901
Fillmore, Charles J. and Atkins, Beryl. T. 1992. "Toward a frame-based lexicon: the semantics of RISK and its neighbors." In Frames, fields, and contrasts: new essays in semantic and lexical organization, edited by A. Lehrer and E. F. Kittay, 75-102. New York/London: Routledge.
Gedigian, M., Bryant, J., Narayanan, S., and Ciric, B. 2006. "Catching metaphors." Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Scalable Natural Language Understanding ScaNaLU 06 (June), 41-48. https://doi.org/10.3115/1621459.1621467
Gill, Lex. 2018. "Law, Metaphor, and the Encrypted Machine." Osgoode Hall Law Journal 55.2: 440-477. Available at: https://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/ohlj/vol55/iss2/3
Gutiérrez, E. Dario, Shutova, Ekaterina, Marghetis, Tyler, and Bergen Benjamin. 2016. "Literal and metaphorical senses in compositional distributional semantic models." In Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Berlin, Germany, August 7-12, 2016, 183-193. https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/P16-1018
Hallam-Baker, Phillip. 2008. dotCrime Manifesto: How to Stop Internet Crime. Addison-Wesley.
Jenner, Leontine. 2018. "Backdoor: how a metaphor turns into a weapon." Available at: https://www.hiig.de/en/backdoor-how-a-metaphor-turns-into-a-weapon/
Krishnakumaran, Saisuresh and Zhu, Xiaojin. 2007. "Hunting elusive metaphors using lexical resources." In Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Approaches to Figurative Language, 13-20. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.3115/1611528.1611531
Kupers, Wendelin M. 2013. "Embodied transformative metaphors and narratives in organisational life‐worlds of change." Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 26 Issue: 3, 494-528. https://doi.org/10.1108/09534811311328551
Lakoff, George. 1993. "The contemporary theory of metaphor". In Metaphor and thought, edited by A. Ortony, 202-251. New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013
Lakoff, George, and Johnson, Mark. 1980. Metaphors we live by. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Landwehr, C., Bull, A. R., McDermott, J. P., and Choi, W. S. 1994. "A Taxonomy of Computer Program Security Flaws, with Examples." ACM Computing Surv., vol. 26, no. 3, 211-254. https://doi.org/10.1145/185403.185412
Lederer, Jenny. (2013). "Assessing claims of metaphorical salience through corpus data." In Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, editored by D. C. Noelle, R. Dale, A. S. Warlaumont, J. Yoshimi, T. Matlock, C. D. Jennings and P. P. Maglio, 1255-1260. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
Lönneker, Birte. 2003. "Is there a way to represent metaphors in WordNets? Insights from the Hamburg Metaphor Database." Proceedings of the ACL 2003 Workshop on Lexicon and Figurative Language - Volume 14, 18-27. https://doi.org/10.3115/1118975.1118978
Martin, James H. 2006. "A corpus-based analysis of context effects on metaphor comprehension." In Corpus-based approaches to metaphor and metonymy edited by S. T. Gries and A. Stefanowitsch, 214-236. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Martin, James H. 1994. "MetaBank: a knowledge-base of metaphoric language conventions." Computational Intelligence 10(2), 134-149. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8640.1994.tb00161.x
Mason, Z. J. 2004. "CorMet: a computational, corpus-based conventional metaphor extraction system." Computational Linguistics 30(1), 23-44.https://doi.org/10.1162/089120104773633376
Philip, G. 2004. "Locating metaphor candidates in specialized corpora using raw frequency and keyword lists." In Metaphor in use: context, culture, and communication edited by F. MacArthur, J. L. Oncins-Martínez, M. Sánchez-García and A. M. Piquer-Píriz, 85-105.Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Pragglejaz Group. 2007. "MIP: a method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse." Metaphor and Symbol 22(1), 1-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926480709336752
Shutova, Ekaterina, Teufel, Simone, and Korhonen, Anna. 2012. "Statistical metaphor processing." Computational Linguistics 39(2), 301-353. https://doi.org/10.1162/COLI_a_00124
Shutova, Ekaterina and Sun, Lin. 2013. "Unsupervised metaphor identification using hierarchical graph factorization clustering." In Proceedings of NAACL-HLT 2013, Atlanta, Georgia, 9-14 June 2013, 978-988. Available at: http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/N13-1118
Skrynnikova, Inna, Astafurova, Tatiana, and Sytina, Nadezhda. 2017. "Power of metaphor: cultural narratives in political persuasion." Proceedings of the 7th International Scientific and Practical Conference "Current issues of linguistics and didactics: The interdisciplinary approach in humanities" (CILDIAH 2017). https://doi.org/10.2991/cildiah-17.2017.50
Steen, Gerard J., Dorst, Aletta, Berenike, Herrmann J., Kaal, Anna A., Krennmayr, Tina, and Pasma, Trijntje. 2010. A method for linguistic metaphor identification: from MIP to MIPVU. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.14
Steen, Gerard, J. 1999. "From linguistic to conceptual metaphor in five steps." In Metaphor in cognitive linguistics, edited by R. W. Gibbs and G. J. Steen (Eds.), 57-77. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.175.05ste
Stefanowitsch, Anatol, and Gries, Stefan Th., eds. 2006. Corpus based approaches to metaphor and metonymy. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199895
Stickles, Elise, David, Oana, Dodge, Ellen K., and Hong, Jisup. 2016. "Formalizing contemporary conceptual metaphor theory." Constructions and Frames 8(2), 166-213. https://doi.org/10.1075/cf.8.2.03sti
Wolff, Josephine. 2014. "Cybersecurity as Metaphor: Policy and Defense Implications of Computer Security Metaphors." Paper presented at TPRC Conference, March 31, 2014. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2418638
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
This journal is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License
Universitat Politècnica de València
e-ISSN: 2530-9455 https://doi.org/10.4995/jclr