Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the English Oral Reading Fluency of L2 students with Specific Learning Difficulties

Salomi Papadima-Sophocleous, Marina Charalambous


In recent years the use of new technologies has been extensively explored in different aspects of language learning pedagogy. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact Repeated Reading activity, supported by iPod Touch could have on the English Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of second language university students with Special Learning Difficulties (SpLD) at Cyprus University of Technology. As part of their university courses, students have two compulsory English courses. Due to their SpLD and low level of language competence, the eight participants enrolled in the English programme for students with SpLD. This programme is based on the phonological approach and the research done in methods dealing with dyslexia (Shaywitz et al., 2004). After being introduced to the iPod-supported Repeated Reading activity, students worked independently for 8 weeks. They listened and replicated three recorded texts performed by native speakers, using Voice Memo. Texts were based on specific phonetic rules the students had to master. Students recorded their best performance of each text reading, using DropVox. Curriculum-Based Measurement, adapted by Rasinski (2004), was used to measure students’ automaticity (speed and accuracy), and an adapted version of Zutell and Rasinksi’s (1991) Multidimensional Framework to measure prosodic features of fluency. A phonemic accuracy scale was developed and used to assess students’ performance related to specific phonemes students had difficulty with. Data analysis revealed that the independent out-of-class use of Repeated Reading, supported by iPod Touch technology helped in increasing students’ automaticity, improving their prosodic features of fluency, including that of specific phonemes.


Oral Reading Fluency (ORF); Special Learning Difficulties (SpLD); dyslexia; reading deficiencies; phonics; Repeated Reading; iPod Touch Technologies

Full Text:



Allington, R. L. (1983). Fluency: The neglected reading goal. The Reading Teacher, 36: 556-561.

Antunez, B. (2002). English Language Learners and the Five Essential Components of Reading Instruction. Reading rockets.

Blum, I., Koskinen, P. A., Tennant, N., Parker, E. M., Straub, M. & Curry, C. (1995). Using audiotaped books to extend classroom literacy instruction into the homes of second-language learners. Journal of Reading behaviour, 27: 535-563.

Chard, D. J., Vaughn, S., & Tyler, B. (2002). A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 386-406.

Deno, S.L., Fuchs, L.S., Marston, D., & Shin, J. (2001). Using curriculum-based measurement to establish growth standards for students with learning disabilities. School Psychology Review, 30, 507-526.

Fuchs, D., Roberts, P.H., Fuchs, L.S., & Bowers, J. (1996). Reintegrating students with learning disabilities into the mainstream: A two-year study. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 11, 214-229.

Fuchs, L.S., & Fuchs, D. (1998). Treatment validity: A unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 13, 204-219.

Hasbrouck, J. (2005). Reading Fluency: Using Oral Fluency Norms for Key Instructional Decisions. University of California Summer Institute of Reading.

Johns, J. & Berglund, R. (2002). Fluency: Question, answers, evidence-based strategies. Dubuque, IO: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

Lambert, M. N. (2008). A Guide to Reading Fluency and the Assessment of Specific Learning Disabilities in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. Draft prepared for the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.

Lems, K. (2005). A study of Adult ESL Oral Reading Fluency and Silent Reading Comprehension. National-Louis University.

Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1997). Best practices in promoting reading comprehension in students with learning disabilities: 1976 to 1996. Remedial and Special Education, 18, 197–213.

McKane, P. F. & Greene, B. A. (1996). The use of theory-based computer-assisted instruction in correctional centers to enhance the reading skills of reading-disadvantaged adults. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 15: 331-344.

McKane, P. F. & Greene, B. A. (1996). The use of theory-based computer-assisted instruction in correctional centers to enhance the reading skills of reading-disadvantaged adults. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 15: 331-344.

Meyer, M. S. & Felton, R. H. (1999). Repeated reading to enhance fluency: Old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia, 49: 283-306.

Papadima-Sophocleous, S. Georgiadou, O. & Mallouris, Y. (October 2012). iPod Impact on Oral Reading Fluency of University ESAP students. In GloCALL 2012 Conference 2012 International Symposium on CALL Abstracts and Short Papers. (CD-ROM). Beijing: China.

Papadima-Sophocleous, S., Charalambous, P. & Mallouris, Y. (July 2013). Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the English Oral Reading Fluency of L2 students with Specific learning Difficulties in WorldCALL 2013 Conference Proceedings. CALL Abstracts and Short Papers. (CD-ROM). Scotland: Glasgow.

Rashotte, C.A. & Torgesen, J.K. (1985). Repeated reading and reading fluency in learning disabled children. Reading Research Quarterly, 20:180-188.

Rasinski, T. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. New York: Scholastic Professional Books.

Rasinski, T.V. (2004, reprinted 2011). Assessing Reading Fluency. Honolulu, Hawai'i: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.

Rasinski, T.V., Blachowicz, C., & Lems, K. (2006). Fluency Instruction: research-Based Best Practices. New York, NY: Guilford.

Samuels, S.J. (1979). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 32: 403-408.

Samuels, S. J. (1997). The method of repeated reading. The Reading Teacher, 50(5), 376-381.

Schreiber, P. A. (1980). On the acquisition of reading fluency. Journal of Reading behaviour, 12: 177-186.

Shaywitz, B., Shaywitz, S., Blachman, B., Pugh, K., Fulbright, R., Skudlarski, P., et al. (2004). Development of left occipito-temporal systems for skilled reading in children after a phonologically-based intervention. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 926–933.

Tan, A., Moore, D.W., Dixon, R.S. & Nicholson, T. (1994). Effects of training in rapid decoding on the reading comprehension of adult ESL learners. Journal of behavioural Education, 4 (2): 177-189.

Tompkins, G.E. (2003). Literacy for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Young, A. R., Bowers, P.G. & MacKinnon, G.E. (1996). Effects of prosodic modeling and repeated reading on poor readers' fluency and comprehension. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17:59-84.

Zutell, J. & Rasinski, T.V. (1991). Training teachers to attend to their students' oral reading fluency. Theory into Practice, 30, 3, 211-217.

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Cited-By (articles included in Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

1. Öğrenme Güçlüğünde Teknoloji Kullanımı Üzerine Sistematik Bir İnceleme
Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi  year: 2020  
doi: 10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.563763

Licencia Creative Commons

This journal is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License.

Universitat Politècnica de València

e-ISSN: 1695-2618