Comparing vocabulary learning of EFL learners by using two different strategies: mobile learning vs. flashcards
Keywords:Vocabulary learning, flashcards, mobile phones, CALL, Language learning
Vocabulary acquisition is one of the most important aspects of language learning. There are a number of techniques and technologies which enhance vocabulary learning in the year 2012, e.g. wordlists, flashcards and m-learning. Mobile phones are among those devices which not only meet the expectations of their users for communication, but are also good devices for language learning. Mobile phones can be used anywhere and anytime, and students are free to use them inside or outside the classroom setting. The present study compared the use of two strategies for vocabulary learning (i.e. flashcards and m-learning) among 80 students studying English Literature and Translation at BA level in a non-profit, non-governmental university in the city of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The findings showed that the use of mobile phones for language learning and vocabulary learning would be a better strategy compared to the use of other paramount techniques, such as flashcards.
Akbulut, Y. (2007). Variables predicting foreign language reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition in a linear hypermedia environment. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 6(1), 53-60.
Akbulut, Y. (2008). Exploration of the attitudes of freshman foreign language students toward using computers at a Turkish state university. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 7(1), 18-31.
Akin, A., & Seferoglu, G. (2004). Improving learners' vocabulary through strategy training and recycling the target words. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 27, 1-10.
Ally, M. (2004). Intelligent tutoring systems for distributed learning. In F. O. Lin (Ed.), Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing, pp. 162-183. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59140-500-9.ch006
Ally, M., Schafer, S., Cheung, B., McGreal, R., & Tin, T. (2007). Use of mobile learning technology to train ESL adults. Paper included in the Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Conference on Mobile Learning, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 7-12.
Altun, A. (2005). Toward an effective integration of technology: message boards for strengthening communication. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 4(1), 68-74.
Attewell, J. (2005). Mobile technologies and learning: A technology update and mlearning project summary. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.
Aydın, S. (2006). The effect of computers on the test and inter-rater reliability of writing tests of ESL learners. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 5(1), 75-81.
Aydın, S. (2007). The attitudes of EFL learners towards the Internet. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 6(3), 18-26.
Baleghizadeh, S. & Ashoori, A. (2011). The Impact of Two Instructional Techniques on EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge: Flash Cards versus Word Lists. MEXTESOL Journal, 35(2), 70-82.
British Educational Communications Technology Agency. (2004). What the research says about portable ICT devices in teaching and learning: 2nd Edition Revised and Updated, Retrieved June 28, 2004, from http://www.becta.org.uk/corporate/publications/documents/Research3_Portable%20Devices.pdf
Brown, T. (2004). The role of m-learning in the future of e-learning in Africa. In D. Murphy, R. Carr, J. Taylor & W. Tat-meng (Eds.), Distance education and technology: Issues and practice. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong, pp. 197-216.
Bruton, A. (2007). Vocabulary learning from dictionary reference in collaborative EFL translational writing. System, 35, 353-367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2007.01.004
Bull, S., Cui, Y., Roebig, H., & Sharples, M. (2005) Adapting to different needs in different locations: Handheld computers in university education. Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (IEEE). Tokushima, Japan: IEEE Computer Society.
Çakır, u. (2006). The use of video as an audio-visual material in foreign language teaching classroom. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 5(4), 67-72.
Calderon, M., August, D., Slavin, R., Duran, D., Madden N., & Cheung, A. (2005). Bringing words to life in classrooms with English-language learners. In E. H. Hiebert & M. L. Kamil (Eds.), Teaching and learning vocabulary: Bringing research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 115-136.
Cavus, N.,& Ibrahim, D. (2009). m-Learning: An experiment in using SMS to support learning new English language words. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 78-91. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00801.x
Cheung, A., & Slavin, R. E. (2005). Effective reading programs for English language learners and other language-minority students. Bilingual Research Journal, 29(2), 241-267. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2005.10162835
Davis, M., Good, N., & Sarvas, R. (2004). From Context to Content: Leveraging Context for Mobile Media Metadata, Retrieved September 10, 2005, from http://sigmobile.org/mobisys/2004/context_awareness/papers/davis.pdf https://doi.org/10.1145/1027527.1027572
Ehri, L. C., & Roberts, K. T. (1979). Do beginners learn printed words better in context or in isolation? Child Development, 50(3), 675-685. https://doi.org/10.2307/1128932
Erten, İ. H., & Tekin, M. (2008). Effects on vocabulary acquisition of presenting new words in semantic sets versus semantically unrelated sets. System, 36, 407-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2008.02.005
Esmahi, L., & Lin, F. (2004). A multiagent framework for an Adaptive E-learning System. In F. Lin (Ed.), Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59140-500-9.ch008
Folse, K.S. (2006). The effect of type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 273-293. https://doi.org/10.2307/40264523
Folse. K. S. (2004). Vocabulary Myths. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.23925
Genç, B. (2004). New trends in teaching and learning vocabulary. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 13(2), 117-126.
Hatipohlu Kavanoz, S. (2006). An exploratory study of English language teachers' beliefs, assumptions and knowledge about learnercenteredness. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 5(2), 3–9.
Holzinger, A., Nischelwitzer, A., & Meisenberger, M. (2005). Lifelong-learning support by m-learning: Example scenarios. E-learn Magazine. Retrieved December 1, 2005, from http://www.elearnmag.org/subpage.cfm?section=research&article=6-1 https://doi.org/10.1145/1125280.1125284
Hulstijn, J.H. (2001). Intentional and incidental second language vocabulary Learning: a Reappraisal of Elaboration, Rehearsal and Automaticity. In P. Robinson (Ed.) Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 258-286. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524780.011
Hulstijn, J.H. & Laufer B. (2001). Some empirical evidence for the involvement load hypothesis in vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning, 51,539–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00164
Hunt, A., & Beglar, D. (2005). A framework for developing EFL reading vocabulary. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17(1), 23-59.
Kawarasaki, M., Ooto, K., Nakanishi, T., & Suzuki, H. (2004, January 26 - 30). Metadata driven seamless content handover in ubiquitous environment [Electronic Version]. International Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT'04). Retrieved September 2, 2004, from http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/saint/2004/2068/00/20680287abs.htm
Keegan, D. (2002). The future of learning: ZIFF papiere 119: From eLearning to mLearning. Retrieved http://www.fernuni-hagen.de/ZIFF/ZP_119.pdf
Kennedy, C. and Levy, M. (2008). L'italiano al telefonino: Using SMS to support beginners' language learning. ReCALL, 20, 315-330. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344008000530
Kocohlu, Z. (2008). Turkish EFL student role of electronic portfolios in their professional development. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational 79.
Kukulska-Hulme, A. & Shield, L. (2008). An overview of mobile assisted language learning: From content delivery to supported collaboration and interaction. ReCALL, 20(3) , 271-289. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344008000335
Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2009). Will mobile learning change language learning? ReCALL, 21(2), 157-165. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344009000202
Larsen-Freeman, D. and Anderson, M. (2011). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lee, S.H., & Muncie, J. (2006). From receptive to productive: Improving ESL learners' use of vocabulary in a postreading composition task. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 295-320. https://doi.org/10.2307/40264524
Lin, F. (Ed.). (2004). Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59140-500-9
Lin, F., & Esmahi, L. (2004). Integrating agent Technologies and web services into Distributed Learning Environments. In F. Lin (Ed.), Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59140-500-9.ch007
Magusin, E., Johnson, K., & Tin, T. (2003). Library services: Designing the digital reading room to support online learning [Electronic Version]. Proceedings of the19th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning. Retrieved March 31, 2005, from http://www.uwex.edu/disted/conference/Resource_library/proceedings/03_65.pdf
McCarten, J. (2007). Teaching vocabulary – Lessons from the corpus, Lessons for the Classroom. Cambridge University Press, [On-line]. Available from http://www.cambridge.org/other_files/downloads/esl/booklets/McCarten-Teaching-Vocabulary.pdf
McCullough, C. (1955). Flash cards-The opiate of the reading program? Elementary English, 32, 379-381.
McGreal, R., Cheung, B., Tin, T., & Schafer, S. (2005) Implementing mobile environments using learning objects: The Athabasca University Digital Reading Room. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education Conference (WMTE) 2005. Tokushima, Japan: IEEE.
Moras, S. (2001). Teaching vocabulary to advanced students: A lexical approach, [On-line]. Retrieved February 21, 2009 Available from http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/teachingvocabulary.html
Nagy, W. E., P. A. Herman, and R. C. Anderson. (1985). Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly. 23, 122-134. https://doi.org/10.2307/747758
Nah, K.CH. , White, P. and Sussex, R. (2008). The potential of using a mobile phone to access the Internet for learning EFL listening skills within a Korean context. ReCALL, 20(3) , 331-347. doi:10.1017/S0958344008000633 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344008000633
Nam, J. (2010). Linking research and practice: effective strategies for teaching vocabulary in the ESL classroom. TESL Canada Journal/Revue TESL de Canada, 28(1), 127-135. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v28i1.1064
Nassaji, H. (2003). L2 vocabulary learning from context: Strategies, knowledge sources, and their relationship with success in L2 lexical inferencing. TESOL Quarterly, 37, 645-670. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588216
Nation, P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Newton, J. (2001). Options for vocabulary learning through communication tasks. Oxford Journals, 55(1), 30- 37. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524759
Nicholson, T. (1998). The flashcard strikes back. The Reading Teacher, 52(2), 188-192.
Okunbor, D.,& Retta, G. (2008). Analysis of a mobile learning pilot study. Math and Computer Science, 22, 120-135.
Oxford, R.L., & Scarcella, R.C. (1994). Second language vocabulary learning among adults: State of the art in vocabulary instruction. System, 22(2),231-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(94)90059-0
Palka, E. (1988). Using cards to revise and practice language items. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 302093).
Perry, D. (2000). Portable computers in primary schools: Literature review. London: Lambeth Education Action Zone. Psion netBooks Project.
Petersen, S. A., M. and Chabert, G. (2008). Identity, sense of community and connectedness in a community of mobile language learners. ReCALL, 20(3), 361-379 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344008000839
Qian, D. D. (2002). Investigating the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic reading performance: An assessment perspective. Language Learning, 52, 513-536. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00193
Read, J. (1988). Measuring the vocabulary knowledge of second language learners. RELC Journal, 19(2), 12-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/003368828801900202
Saran, M., Cagiltay, K., & Seferoglu, G. (2008). Use of mobile phones in language learning: Developing effective instructional materials. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education-WMUTE2008, pp. 39-43. https://doi.org/10.1109/WMUTE.2008.49
Savill-Smith, C., & Kent, P. (2003). The use of palmtop computers for learning: A review of the literature, Retrieved March 28, 2004, from http://www.m-learning.org/docs/the_use_of_palmtop_computers_for_learning_sept03.pdf
Song, Y., & Fox, R. (2005) Integrating m-technology into Web-based ESL vocabulary learning for working adult learners. Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (IEEE). Tokushima, Japan: IEEE Computer Society.
Song, Y., & Fox, R. (2008). Using PDA for undergraduate student incidental vocabulary testing. ReCALL, 20(3), 290-314. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344008000438
Stockwell, G. (2007). Vocabulary on the move: Investigating an intelligent mobile phone-based vocabulary tutor. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20(4), 365-383. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588220701745817
Stockwell, G. (2008). Investigating learner preparedness for and usage patterns of mobile learning. ReCALL, 20(3), 253-270. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344008000232
Tang, E., & Nesi, H. (2003). Teaching vocabulary in two Chinese classrooms: Schoolchildren's exposure to English words in Hong Kong and Guangzhou. Language Teaching Research, 7(1), 65-97. https://doi.org/10.1191/1362168803lr113oa
Taylor, R. (2005). Kenya pilots handheld education. BBC News. Retrieved August 4, 2005, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/click_online/4727617.stm
Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in English education in Japan. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 217-228. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2005.00129.x
Wesche, M., & Paribakht, T. S. (1996). Assessing second language vocabulary knowledge: Depth versus breadth. Canadian Modern Language Review, 53, 13–40. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.53.1.13
Wishart, J. (2008). Challenges faced by modern foreign language teacher trainees in using handheld pocket PCs (Personal Digital Assistants) to support their teaching and learning. ReCALL, 20(3) , 348-360. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344008000736
White, A. (2005). Infusing PDA technology into nursing education. Nurse Educator. 30(4): 150-154. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006223-200507000-00006
Yang, S. J. H., Shao, N. W. Y., & Sue, A. Y. S. (2005) Personalized Metadata Mechanism Applied to Adaptive Mobile Learning. 2nd IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'04). Retrieved September 10, 2005, from http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/abs/proceedings/wmte/2004/1989/00/1989toc.htm https://doi.org/10.1109/WMTE.2004.1281377
Young, C. C., Hecimovic, A., & Salzberg, C. L. (1983). Tutor-tutee behavior of disadvantaged kindergarten children during peer teaching. Education and Treatment of Children, 6(2), 123-135.
This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License