Protocol: What does the wage structure depend on? Evidence from the INE salary national survey (pilot study with 2006 data)


  • Juan Martinez-Tomas Jose Martinez Medina S.A.
  • Juan A. Marin-Garcia Universitat Politècnica de València



Protocol, Systematic literature review, Cross-Sectional, Human resources management, High-performance work practices, High-performance work systems, AMO framework, Ability-motivation-opportunity model, Organizational performance, Motivation


In previously published research, a great difference is observed concerning salary components that are used in different national contexts. In the present study, we will focus on the Spanish case by using data taken from the salary structure survey (ESS) conducted by the INE (Spanish National Statistical Organization). This protocol raises several research questions. Our main objective is to find out the incidence and degree of use of extrinsic motivation programs in the Spanish labour context. For that purpose, we propose a methodology to analyse the ESS, as well as to find out whether any research has been carried out in this regard. 2006’s pilot analysis is being presented in this moment in order to illustrate step by step the method of analysis.

Our results show that both degree of use and intensity of the economic remuneration programs related to extrinsic motivation are low (e.g. in monthly payments, the most frequent component is fixed income supplements not related to shifts, which represent 75% of people from ESS2006. Then, we find variable supplements (29%) and fixed supplements related to shifts (15%). Regarding intensity, basic monthly salaries dominate by far as the major part of a salary (73%) while variable extraordinary payments (1.8%), supplements related to shifts (1%), extra hours (<1%) and payment in kind (<1 per thousand) represent a marginal amount of the total salary paid). On the other hand, our results also indicate the existence of several factors that may influence the presence of variable complements (sectoral differences, market scope, organization size, educational level or labour agreement).

As additional contribution to our work, the present study allows us to know whether the sample collected by academic research is representative or not, since the incidence and extend of use of the economic participation programme should lead to similar results to those provided by the INE. On the other hand, we can identify those adjustment variables that influence in the salary distribution composition. All work done so far allows us to confirm that the research hypotheses are, at least, relevant because they have not been answered up in the literature published to date.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Juan Martinez-Tomas, Jose Martinez Medina S.A.

Operations manager

Juan A. Marin-Garcia, Universitat Politècnica de València

ROGLE. Dpto. de Organización de Empresas

Profesor titular de la universidad (PDI)


Alcalá Agulló, F., & Hernández Martínez, P.J. (2006). Las externalidades del capital humano en la empresa española. Revista de Economía Aplicada, XIV(41), 61-83. Retrieved from

Alcalá Agulló, F., & Hernández Martínez, P.J. (2007). Estructura empresarial, educación media por establecimientos y salarios: la dinámica reciente. Cuadernos Económicos de ICE, (74) 73-100. Retrieved from http://www.reevistasice.comm/cmsrevistasIICE/pdfs/CICCE_74_73100___96CBEC555DB54EAB7FFA76E 9E29AF2E122B.pdf

Antón, J. I., & Bustillo, R.M. (2015). Public-private sector wage differentials in Spain. An updated picture in the midst of Great Recession. Investigacion Economica, 74(292), 115-157.

Appelbaum, E., Bailey, T., Berg, P., & Kalleberg, A. L. (2000). Do high performance work systems pay off? London: ILR Press.

Arranz Muñoz, J. M., & García Serrano, C. (2012). Earnings differentials and the changing distribution of wages in Spain, 2005-2010. Papeles de Trabajo Del Instituto de Estudios Fiscales. Serie Economía, (10), 3-29. Retrieved from

Arranz Muñoz, J. M., & García Serrano, C. (2014). How green was my valley earnings differentials and the changing distribution of wages in spain. International Journal of Manpower, 35(7), 1059–1087.

Bailey, T. (1993). Organizational innovation in the apparel industry. Industrial Relations, 32(1), 30–48.

Bande, R., & Fernández, M. (2011). Wage flexibility and local labour markets: homogeneity of wage curve in Spain. Labour, (34), 1-26. Retriec¡ved from

Baruch, Y., & Holtom, B. C. (2008). Survey response rate levels and trends in organizational research. Human Relations, 61(8), 1139–1160. Retrieved from

Bayo-Moriones, A., Calleja-Blanco, J., & Lera-López, F. (2015). The relationship between ICTs and HPWPs across occupations. International Journal of Manpower, 36(8), 1164–1180.

Bayo-Moriones, A., & Galdon-Sanchez, J. E. (2010). Multinational companies and high-performance work practices in the Spanish manufacturing industry. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(8), 1248–1271.

Benet-Zepf, A., Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Küster, I. (2018). Clustering the mediators between the sales control systems and the sales performance using the AMO model: A narrative systematic literature review. Intangible Capital, 14(3), 387–408.

Bos-Nehles, A. C., Van Riemsdijk, M. J., & Kees Looise, J. (2013). Employee perceptions of line management performance: Applying the AMO theory to explain the effectiveness of line managers’ HRM implementation. Human Resource Management, 52(6), 861–877.

Boselie, P. (2010). High performance work practices in the health care sector: a Dutch case study. International Journal of Manpower, 31(1), 42–58.

Boxall, P., & Purcell, J. (2003). Strategy and human resource management. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Budría, S., & Moro-Egido, A. I. (2008). Education, educational mismatch, and wage inequality: Evidence for Spain. Economics of Education Review, 27(3), 332–341.

Budría, S., & Moro-Egido, A. I. (2009). The Overeducation Phenomenon in Europe. Revista Internacional de Sociología, 67(2), 329-345.

Carrasco, R., Jimeno, J.F., & Ortega, A.C. (2015). Returns to Skills and the Distribution ofWages: Spain1995–2010. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 77(4), 542-565.

Choi, J.-H. (2014). The HR-performance link using two differently measured HR practices. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 52(3), 370–387.

Christopoulou, R., Jimeno, J.F. & Lamo, A. (2010). Changes in the Wage Structure in EU Countries. Ssrn, (17), 8-41.

Clemente, J., Diaz-Foncea, M., Marcuello, C., & Sanso-Navarro, M. (2012). The wage gap between cooperative and capitalist firms: Evidence from Spain. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 83(3), 337–356.

Della Torre, E., & Solari, L. (2013). High-performance work systems and the change management process in medium-sized firms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(13), 2583–2607.

Elisabet, M., López Bazo, E., & Mayssun, E.-A. (2007). Cambios en la distribución salarial en españa, 1995-2002, efectos a través del tipo de contrato. Documents de Treball (IREA), (12), 1-30. Retrieved from

Erdman, C., Adams, T., & O’Hare, B. C. (2016). Development of Interviewer Response Rate Standards for National Surveys. Field Methods, 28(1), 21–37.

Felgueroso, F., Pérez-Villadóniga, M.J., & Prieto-Rodriguez, J. (2008). The effect of the collective bargaining level on the geender wage gap: Evidence from Spain. Manchester SSchool, 76(3), 301–319.

Fernández, M., Meixide, A., & Simón, H. (2006). El empleo de bajos salarios en España. ICE. Revista de Economía, (833), 177–198. Retrieved from http:///­197__3104D0C5B5E80A2CDF1539F3B306057B.pdf

Frohlich, M. T. (2002). Techniques for improving response rates in OM survey research. Journal of Operations Management, 20(1), 53–62.

Giordano, R., Coutinho Pereira, M., Depalo, D., Eugène, B., Papaetrou, E., Perez, J. J., …… Roter, M. (2015). The Public Sector Pay Gap in a Selection of Euro Area Countries in the Pre-crisis Period. Hacienda Pública Española, 214(3), 11–34.

González de San Rommán, A., & Rebollo-Sanz, Y. F. (2016). An estimation of worker and firm effects with censored data. Bulletin of Economic Research.

Hendra, R., & Hill, A. (n.d.). Rethinking Response Rates: New Evidence of Little Relationship Between Survey Response Rates and Nonresponse Bias. Evaluation Review, 0(0), 0193841X18807719.

Hospido, L., & Moral-Benito, E. (2016). The public sector wage premium in Spain: Evidence from longitudinal administrative data. Labour Economics, 42, 101–122.

Huselid, M. A. (1995). the Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover, Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 635–672.

I B M corp. (2013). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0 64 bits. Armonk, NY.

Instituto Nacional Estadistica. (2017). Encuesta de estructura salarial. Retrieved from

Izquierdo, M., & Lacuesta, A. (2006). Wage Inequality in Spain: Recent Developments. Benco de España, 0615(2006), 1–38. Retrieved from

James, W. (1989). Principios de psicología. Alianza Editorial. Retrieved fromía.html?id=0thWAAAACAAJ&source=kp_cover&redir_esc=y

Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Hu, J., Baer, J. C., Jia, J. U., & Baer, J. C. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms. Academy of Management Journal, 55(6), 1264–1294.

Larraz, B., & Herera,, M. (2016). Determinants of Wage Inequality in Spain: A Spatial Approach. Estudios De Economia Aplicada, 34(3), 607–627.

Lawler, E. E. (1986). High-involvement management. Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from

Liu, W., Guthrie, J. P., Flood, P. C., & Maccurtain, S. (2009). Unions and the adoption of high performance work systems: Does employment security play a role? Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 63(1), 109–127.

Marin-Garcia, J. A. (2013). ¿Qué sabemos sobre la relación de los programas de recursos humanos de alto rendimiento y el desempeño organizativo? (What do we know about the relationship between High Involvement Work Practices and Performance?). WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 4(2), 01-15.

Marin-Garcia, J. A. (2015). Publishing in two phases for focused research by means of “research collaborations.” WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 6(2), 76.

Marin-Garcia, J. A. (2019). Publishing in three stages to support evidence based practice in OM, HRM and T&L innovation. WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 10(2), in press.

Marin-Garcia, J. A., Bonavia, T., & Miralles Insa, C. (2008). The use of employee participation in the USA and Spanish companies. International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management, 3(1), 71–80. Retrieved from use of employee participations inUSAand Spanish.pdf

Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Conci, G. (2012). Verification of the reflective model of first order factors for reward and empowerment constructs, based on questionnaires derived from Lawler et al. (1991). Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 5(2), 473–495.

Marín-García, J. A., & Conci, G. (2013). Validación de un cuestionario para medir el grado de uso de las prácticas de alta implicación de los trabajadores. Intangible Capital, 9(3), 854–882.

Marin-Garcia, J. A., Garcia-Sabater, J. J., & Maheut, J. (2018). CAPITULO 9 RECURSOS HUMANOS Y DISEÑO DEL TRABAJO. In D. Arias Aranda & B. Minguela Rata (Eds.), Dirección de la producción y operaciones. Decisiones estratégicas (pp. 317–338). Madrid: Pirámide.

Marin-Garcia, J. A., Garcia-Sabater, J. J., Maheut, J., Valero-Herrero, M., & Andres-Romano, C. (2012). Gestión de recursos humanos para ingenieros de la rama industrial. Madrid: Pearson-Prentice Hall.

Marin-Garcia, J. A., Juarez-Tarraga, A., & Santandreu-Mascarell, C. (2018). Kaizen philosophy: The keys of the permanent suggestion systems analyzed from the workers’ perspective. TQM Journal, 30(4), 296–320.

Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Martínez Tomas, J. (2016). Deconstructing AMO framework: A systematic review. Intangible Capital, 12(4), 1040–1087.

Marin-Garcia, J. A., Miralles, C., Garcia-Sabater, J. J., & Perello-Marin, M. R. (2011). Alternative tools to mass production and human performance indicators in sheltered work centers of Valencian community. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 4(3), 467–480. Retrieved from

Marin-Garcia, J. A., Ramirez Bayarri, L., & Atares Huerta, L. (2015). Protocol: Comparing advantages and disadvantages of Rating Scales, Behavior Observation Scales and Paired Comparison Scales for behavior assessment of competencies in workers. A systematic literature review. WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 6(2), 49.

Martínez Gómez, M., Marin-Garcia, J., & Giraldo-O’Meara, M. (2016). The measurement invariance of job diagnostic survey (JDS) across three university student groups. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 9(1), 17–34.

Matuszewska-Janica, A. (2018). Men and women wage differences in Spain and Poland. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 14(1), 45–52.

Messina, J., Duarte, C. F., Izquierdo, M., du Caju, P., & Hansen, N. L. (2010). The incidence of nominal and real wage rigidity: An individual-based sectoral approach. Journal of the European Economic Association, 8(2–3), 487–496.

Minbaeva, D. B. (2013). Strategic HRM in building micro-foundations of organizational knowledge-based performance. Human Resource Management Review, 23(4), 378–390.

Motellon, E., Lopez-Bazo, E., & El-Attar, M. (2011). Regional heterogeneity in wage distributions: Evidence from spain. Journal of Regional Science, 51(3), 558–584.­-9787.2011.00714.x

Murillo Huertas, I. P.,, & Simón, H. (2014). La Gran Recesión y el diferencial salarial por género en España. Hacienda Publica Espanola, 208(1), 39–76.

Navarro-Gómez, L., & Rueda-Narvaez, M. F. (2015). Distribution of the gender wage gap with endogenous human capital: evidence for Spain. Evidence-Based HRM: A Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, 3(1), 25–45.

Peeters, M., & den Reijer, A. (2014). Coordination versus flexibility in wage formation: A focus on the nominal wage impact of productivity in Germany, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the United States. Applied Economics, 46(7), 698–714.

Peraita, C. (2005). Firm-sponsored training in regulated labour markets: Evidence from Spain. Applied Economics, 37(16), 1885–1898.

Perello-Marin, M. R., & Ribes-Giner, G. (2014). Identifying a guiding list of high involvement practices in human resource management. WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 5(1), 31–47.

Rabl, T., Jayasinghe, M., Gerhart, B., & Kühlmann, T. M. (2014). A meta-analysis of country differences in the high-performance work system–business performance relationship: The roles of national culture and managerial discretion. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(6), 1011–1041.

Raidén, A. B., Dainty, A. R. J., & Neale, R. H. (2006). Balancing employee needs, project requirements and organisational priorities in team deployment. Construction Management and Economics, 24(8), 883–895.

Ramos, R., Sanromá, E., & Simón, H. (2014). Public-private sector wage differentials by type of contract: Evidence from Spain. Hacienda Publica Espanola, 208(1), 107–141.­RPE.14.1.4

Rebollo--Sanz, Y. F. (22017). Decomposing the structure of wages into firm and worker effects: Some insights from a high unemployment economy. International Journal of Manpower, 38(5), 765–787.

Rica, S. De. (2005). The Impact of Gender Segregation on Male-Female Wage Differentials: Evidence from Matched Employer-Employee Data for Spain. DFAE-II WP Series, (1742), 0–1. Retrieved from

Robineau, A., Ohana, M., & Swaton, S. (2015). The challenges of implementing high performance work practices in the nonprofit sector. Journal of Applied Business Research, 31(1), 103–114. Retrieved from

Schimansky, S. (2014, June 30). The Effect of a High-Commitment Work System on Innovative Behavior of Employees. Retrieved from

Serrano-Cinca, C., Fuertes-Callén, Y., & Mar-Molinero, C. (2005). Measuring DEA efficiency in Internet companies. Decision Support Systems, 38(4), 557–573.

Simón, H. (2009). La desigualdad salarial en España: Una perspectiva internacional y temporal. Investigaciones Econ{Ó}Micas, 33(3), 439–471.

Simón, H. J., Ramos, R., & Sanromá, E. (20066). Collective bargaining and regional wage differences in Spain: An empirical analysis. Applied Economics, 38(15), 1749–1760.

Simón, H., & Murillo, I. (2014). ¿Sufren las mujeres inmigrantes una doble penalización salarial? Evidencia para España. Cuadernos Económicos de ICE, (87), 855–126. Retrieved from­126__65068573CB6291DFD7AC1CC34DDD2BBF. pdf

Simon H., Sanroma, E., & Ramos, R. (2017). Full- and part-time wage differences in Spain: an analysis along the wage distribution. International journal of Manpower, 38(3), 449-469.

Toch, M., Bambra, C., Lunau, T., van der Wel, K. A., Witvliet, M. I., Dragano, N., & Eikemo, T. A. (2014). All Part of the Job? The Contribution of the Psychosocial and Physical Work Environment to Health Inequalities in Europe and the European Health Divide. International Journal of Health Services, 44(2), 285–305.

Vega, P.J., Sánchez, R.S., Núñez, B.C., & Gómez, N.E. (2016). Participación femenina en puestos directivos y desigualdad salarial. Un análisis en el mercado laboral español. Women Directors, Critical mass and Gender Wage Gap. Evidence for Spain, 34(1), 155-178. retrieved from

Williams, C., Bejaković, P., Mikulić, D., Franic, J., Kedir, A., & Horodnic, I. A. (2017). An Evaluation of the Scale of Undeclared Work in the European Union and Its Structural Determinants: Estimates Using the Labour Input Method. Ssrn.

Yu, C.-S., Finegold, D., Lawler III, E. E., & Cochran, D. S. (2000). Does cultural fit matter? The adoption and efectiveness of the employee involvement practices in China and the United States. Current Topics on Management, 5.




How to Cite

Martinez-Tomas, J., & Marin-Garcia, J. A. (2019). Protocol: What does the wage structure depend on? Evidence from the INE salary national survey (pilot study with 2006 data). WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 10(1), 70–103.



Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2 3 4 5 > >>