Drawing. The first construction of Paul Rudolph’s architecture





Rudolph, architecture, drawing, perspective, building


The American architect Paul Rudolph (1918-1997) conceded drawing a fundamental role in his creative process, which corresponded to a highly emotional conception of architecture. During his training and first years of work, he acquired a type of representation that allowed him to convey his personal vision of each project. His relentless will to overcome the International Style was based on six determinants: environment, natural conditions, materials, function, psychological demands of the space and spirit of times, which guided him in the search for answers and marked his work until the end of the sixties, when he achieved his creative maturity. Taking the drawing as the axis of the investigation, we analyse how these factors intervene in his residential projects in Florida, whose tectonics he conceived based on the spatial unit; in his collective housing projects, whose social facet he channelled towards urban modular groups; and in his projects of a monumental scale, whose materiality he imagined and defined accurately. In all of them spatial and constructive decisions relate intimately to his method of representation, establishing a continuous parallelism between drawing and building.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Noelia Cervero Sánchez, Universidad de Zaragoza

Profesor Ayudante Doctor, Área de Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica, Departamento Arquitectura.

Escuela de Ingeniería y Arquitectura de la Universidad de Zaragoza


Barrière, Philippe. “Que devenez-vous, Paul Rudolph?.” L’Architecture d’Aujourd’hui n. 265 (October 1989): 24-32.

Bruegmann, Robert. “Interview with Paul Rudolph.” Chicago Architects Oral History Project, Ernest R. Graham Study Center for Architectural Drawings and Art Institute of Chicago, 1986. http://digitallibraries. saic.edu/cdm/ref/collection/caohp/id/9861. Retrieved 11 November 2018.

Bruegmann, Robert. “The architect as urbanist.” In Paul Rudolph. The Late Work. Roberto de Alba. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2003.

Capitel, Antón. “La Tercera Generación, o algunos de los cantos de cisne del Movimiento Moderno.” ZARCH Journal of interdisciplinary studies in Architecture and Urbanism n. 10 (June 2018): 26-43. https://doi.org/10.26754/ojs_zarch/zarch.2018102928

Cook, John W., and Heinrich Klotz. Conversations with architects. New York: Prague Publishers, 1973.

Cortés, Juan Antonio, and Rafael Moneo. Comentarios sobre dibujos de 20 arquitectos actuales. Barcelona: ETSAB, 1976.

Davern, Jeanne M. “Conversations with Paul Rudolph.” Architectural Record (March 1982): 90-97.

Chasin, Noah. “Selected drawings by Paul Rudolph.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians Vol. 57, n. 3 (September 1998): 316-318. https://doi.org/10.2307/991349

Dempsey, Anna, Ben Youtz, and Kelly Haigh. “Re-viewing and Reimagining Paul Rudolph’s Brutalist Architecture in the USA and Southeast Asia.” Studies in History and Theory of Architecture Vol. 2 (2014): 140-162.

Domin, Christopher, and Joseph King. Paul Rudolph: The Florida houses. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-56898-647-5

Domingo-Calabuig, Débora. “La modernidad sureña: Paul Rudolph en Florida.” In Casa por casa: reflexiones sobre el habitar, edited by Jorge Torres Cueco, 90-103. Valencia: General de Ediciones de Arquitectura, 2009.

Domingo-Calabuig, Débora. “A single strategy: Southeastern Massachusetts Technological Institute by Paul Rudolph.” ZARCH Journal of interdisciplinary studies in Architecture and Urbanism n. 10 (June 2018): 114-125. https://doi.org/10.26754/ojs_zarch/zarch.2018102935

Forster, Kurt. “Sueños de hormigón: Paul Rudolph, 1918-1997.” Arquitectura Viva n. 208 (October 2018): 51-53.

Galván Desvaux, Noelia, Antonio Álvaro-Tordesillas, and Marina Jiménez Jiménez. “Paul Rudolph: arquitecturas dibujadas en el paisaje de Florida.” ZARCH Journal of interdisciplinary studies in Architecture and Urbanism n. 10 (June 2018): 100-113. https://doi.org/10.26754/ojs_zarch/zarch.2018102934

Marlin, William. “Paul Rudolph, Drawings.” Architectural Forum n. 138 (June 1973): 46-53.

Mehrtens, Cristina. “Brutal identity: Paul Rudolph, the city and the renewal of the modern,” Arquitextos, 2007. http://www.vitruvius.com.br/revistas/read/arquitextos/08.090/189/en. Retrieved 11 November 2018.

Monk, Tony. The Art and Architecture of Paul Rudolph. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Academy, 1999.

Porter, Tom. “Paul Rudolph.” In Architectural drawing. Master Class. Graphic techniques from the world’s leading architects, 42-45. Singapore: Amazon Publishing Limited, 1993.

Rohan, Timothy M. “Rendering the surface: Paul Rudolph’s Art and Architecture Building at Yale.” Grey Room n. 1 (Autumn 2000): 84-107. https://doi.org/10.1162/152638100750173074

Rohan, Timothy M. The Architecture of Paul Rudolph. Cambridge: Yale University Press, 2014.

Rohan, Timothy M., ed. Reassessing Rudolph. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017.

Rudolph, Paul. “Three new directions.” Perspecta MIT Press Vol. 1 (1952): 18-25. https://doi.org/10.2307/1566842

Rudolph, Paul. “The six determinants of Architectural Form.” Architectural Record (October 1956): 183-190.

Rudolph, Paul. “Regionalism in Architecture.” Perspecta MIT Press Vol. 4 (1957): 12-19. https://doi.org/10.2307/1566852

Rudolph, Paul. “To enrich our Architecture,” Journal of Architectural Education Vol. 13, n. 1 (Spring 1958): 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/10464883.1958.11102385

Rudolph, Paul. “The Architectural Education in USA.” Zodiac n. 8 (1961): 162-165.

Rudolph, Paul. “Paul Rudolph’s elaborated spaces: Six new projects.” Architectural Record (June 1966): 135-150.

Rudolph, Paul, and Sibyl Moholy-Nagy. La arquitectura de Paul Rudolph. Barcelona: Gustavo Gili, 1971.

Rudolph, Paul. “Paul Rudolph: 100 works 1946-74.” A+U Architecture and Urbanism (1977).

Rudolph, Paul. Paul Rudolph: Dessins d’architecture, Architekturzeichnungen, Architectural Drawings. New York: Architectural Book Publishing Company, 1981.

Rudolph, Paul. “Excerpt from a conversation.” Perspecta MIT Press Vol. 22 (1986): 102-107. https://doi.org/10.2307/1567097

Rudolph, Paul. Writings on Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Sancho Mir, Miguel, Beatriz Martín Domínguez, and Antonio Gómez Gil. “Frank Lloyd Wright & Hiroshige; de los grabados japoneses al portafolio Wasmuth.” EGA Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica n. 22 (2013): 204-213. https://doi.org/10.4995/ega.2013.1279

Scarpa, Laurence. “Paul Rudolph: Metaphors, Paradoxes, Contradictions and Abstractions.” In Symposium about the work of Paul Rudolph, edited by Timothy M. Rohan. Cambridge: Yale University Press, 2009.

Spade, Rupert. Paul Rudolph. London: Thames and Hudson, 1971.





Research articles
Received 2018-11-14
Accepted 2019-03-05
Published 2019-04-30