Control y Operación de Estaciones Depuradoras de Aguas Residuales: Modelado y Simulación

Ramón Vilanova, Ignacio Santín, Carles Pedret

Resumen

Este trabajo constituye la primera parte de una revisión de la problemática del control y operación de estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales (EDAR) para el tratamiento de agua residual urbana. En esta primera parte nos centramos en el modelado y simulación mientras que la segunda parte se dedica en exclusiva al control y operación. Esta depuración se realiza, mayoritariamente, mediante procesos biológicos, concretamente, mediante el denominado proceso de fangos activados. El hecho de tratar con un proceso biológico conlleva una elevada complejidad tanto desde el punto de vista de modelado como, por supuesto, de control y operación. Para poder ubicar convenientemente el problema, se presenta una caracterización de las aguas residuales urbanas y las necesidades de depuración asociadas. El control y operación descansan en gran medida en la disponibilidad de modelos apropiados y, ya hoy en día, de una elevada fiabilidad. Se presentan los modelos de la familia ASM; poniendo especial énfasis en el ASM1 que se describe en más detalle; así como las características de otras unidades de proceso como el decantador y su interconexión. En estos modelos destacan los entornos BSM de benchmarking, que han sido esenciales para todo el posterior desarrollo en la actividad de control y operación.

Palabras clave

Estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales; proceso de fangos activados; benchmarking

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Referencias

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