Mejora de la Vida Útil en los Módulos de Electrónica de Potencia de un BLDCM Mediante la Optimización de un Control Difuso

M. García López, P. Ponce, L. A. Soriano, A. Molina, J. J. Rodriguez


El tiempo de vida útil en los elementos de electrónica de potencia en accionamientos eléctricos para motores de corriente directa sin escobillas BLDCM (por sus siglas en inglés Brushless Direct Current Motor), pueden verse afectados debido a las pérdidas por conmutación y conducción que aparecen durante su operación. Estas pérdidas normalmente no se considerarán en el diseño del controlador, por lo que su vida útil disminuye drásticamente o genera fallas prematuramente. El presente trabajo propone la optimización de un controlador difuso mediante el algoritmo PSO (por sus siglas en inglés Particle Swarm Optimization), este diseño considera la temperatura en los semiconductores y la velocidad mecánica del BLDCM, lo que permite incrementar la vida útil de los semiconductores utilizados en los módulos de electrónica de potencia, al mismo tiempo que alcanza la velocidad de referencia asignada. Finalmente, los resultados del controlador difuso optimizado (Difuso-PSO) propuesto se comparan con un controlador proporcional, derivativo e integral (PID) convencional, y un controlador difuso convencional. Estos resultados muestran ser superiores en comparación a los controladores convencionales, ya que incrementan el tiempo de vida de los semiconductores y alcanzan las velocidades de referencia establecidas. Adicionalmente, se emplea la co-simulación como una herramienta que permite diseñar, implementar y validar los resultados de manera confiable. En esta co-simulación la electrónica de potencia, el BLDCM y el controlador propuesto fueron diseñados en MultisimTM y LabVIEWTM de National Instrument (NI).

Palabras clave

Módulo de Electrónica de Potencia; BLDCM; Control Difuso; Tiempo de Vida Útil; Optimización por Enjambre de Partículas

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