El Páncreas Artificial: Control Automático de Infusión de Insulina en Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1

J. Bondia, J. Vehí, C. C. Palerm, P. Herrero

Resumen

La diabetes mellitus tipo 1 es una enfermedad crónica que afecta aproximadamente a 30 millones de personas en el mundo y se caracteriza por niveles de concentración de glucosa en sangre elevados producidos por una deficiencia absoluta de insulina. Ello produce numerosas complicaciones a largo plazo como retinopatía, nefropatía y neuropatía entre otras. Las terapias actuales basadas en el suministro de insulina exógena (por inyecciones o bomba de insulina), no consiguen normalizar los niveles de glucosa de forma eficiente. Los avances tecnológicos en la última década en sistemas de medición continua de glucosa e infusión de insulina, han impulsado el desarrollo del páncreas artificial, o control automático de infusión de insulina. En este trabajo se presentará, a modo de tutorial, el pasado, presente y futuro de esta tecnología, tan esperada por el paciente diabético. Se revisará el estado actual de la tecnología para la sensorización y actuación, principales desafíos desde el punto de vista de control, las diferentes ``escuelas'' y estudios clínicos del desempeño de controladores, así como herramientas de validación de controladores mediante simulación. Dada la complejidad del problema, el desarrollo del páncreas artificial será de forma escalonada, redundando progresivamente en la mejora de la calidad de vida del paciente. Los grandes avances en los últimos cinco años hacen preveer un horizonte cercano para la primera generación de páncreas artificial.

Palabras clave

Sistemas biomédicos; control en lazo cerrado; control PID; control predictivo; modelos fisiológicos

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Referencias

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