Modelado y Control de Convertidores Conmutados Continua-Continua: Una perspectiva Tutorial

L. Martinez Salamero, A. Cid Pastor, A. El Aroudi, R. Giral, Javier Calvente

Resumen

En este trabajo se presenta de forma tutorial los conceptos básicos de modelado y control de convertidores conmutados continua-continua. Tras definir la Electrónica de Potencia y su dominio de utilización, se presenta la conversión continua-continua (cc-cc) como núcleo básico de aquella y se clasifican los convertidores conmutados cc-cc como sistemas de estructura variable. Se introduce posteriormente la noción de regulador conmutado y se describe el funcionamiento de un modulador de anchura de pulsos para derivar un modelo de tiempo continuo a partir de un análisis de la dinámica promediada del convertidor. A partir del modelo de tiempo continuo del convertidor, se obtiene el modelo dinámico del regulador conmutado y se describen controladores lineales de un solo lazo y controladores en cascada. El control no lineal de convertidores se aborda a partir de la inducción de regímenes deslizantes en las estructuras de potencia. Se establece a continuación la equivalencia de estos sistemas con los que utilizan modulador de anchura de pulsos, y se describen algunas de sus aplicaciones. Finalmente se ofrece una perspectiva de las técnicas de estudio de la dinámica no lineal en convertidores mediante un enfoque generalizado a partir de un modelo de tiempo discreto que permite analizar las bifurcaciones resultantes y controlar el caos.

Palabras clave

Convertidores conmutados; sistemas de estructura variable; sistemas no lineales; modulación de anchura de pulsos; control no lineal; control en modo de deslizamiento; sistemas de control lineal; control H-infinito; comportamiento caótico

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