La Robótica, una Valiosa Herramienta en Cirugía

Alicia Casals, Manel Frigola, Josep Amat

Resumen

Los avances tanto en las técnicas de diagnóstico por la imagen como la incorporación de nuevas tecnologías en el instrumental están cambiando de forma progresiva los procedimientos quirúrgicos. Por otra parte, las técnicas de cirugía mínimamente invasiva, que están actualmente muy consolidadas, han supuesto un avance tanto tecnológico como de tratamiento quirúrgico. Las limitaciones, tanto en precisión como en accesibilidad, que implica la realización de operaciones de forma manual pueden ser abordadas con la ayuda de la robótica. Asimismo, el control de robots basado en sensores está abriendo paso a nuevas mejoras de estos procedimientos, ya sea mediante la teleoperación, en que cirujano y robot establecen la mejor sinergia para conseguir óptimos resultados o mediante la automatización de determinadas acciones. En este artículo se describe esta evolución, repasando inicialmente los ámbitos de aplicación de la robótica, para a continuación analizar las tecnologías y métodos implicados en el proceso de robotización de la cirugía y los sistemas de interacción cirujano-robot.

Palabras clave

Robótica; Aplicaciones Médicas; Teleoperación; Sistemas Biomédicos; Cirugía asistida por Computador; Interfaces Persona-Máquina

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