Identificación paramétrica de edificios sujetos a excitación sísmica bidimensional

Juan Mauricio Ángeles-Cervantes, Luis Alvarez-Icaza

Resumen

Se presenta un método de identificación por mínimos cuadrados de los parámetros de un modelo por cortante de un edificio que considera tres grados de libertad por cada piso. La excitación para la identificación se supone proveniente de dos componentes ortogonales horizontales de movimiento del terreno inducido por un sismo. El conocimiento de estos parámetros resulta útil en la aplicación de técnicas de control semiactivas que atenúen la vibración de los edificios durante el sismo y prevengan daños permanentes. El método usado introduce una variación en la formulación convencional de mínimos cuadrados que permite una reducción sustancial en el número de cálculos involucrados, lo que hace factible la aplicación de la metodología en tiempo real. Para probar el método se utiliza un conjunto de datos registrados en dos edificios instrumentados durante la ocurrencia de un sismo. Los resultados obtenidos permiten comprobar la eficacia del algoritmo para reconstruir las aceleraciones de los entrepisos y recuperar las frecuencias fundamentales de vibración de la estructura.

Palabras clave

identificación paramétrica en tiempo real; control semiactivo de estructuras; mínimos cuadrados; cálculo de estructuras; integridad de estructuras

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