Control Tolerante a Fallos (Parte II): Mecanismos de Tolerancia y Sistema Supervisor

Vicenç Puig, Joseba Quevedo, Teresa Escobet, Bernardo Morcego, Carlos Ocampo

Resumen

Los procesos industriales gobernados mediante controladores automáticos pueden presentar fallos. Una forma de aumentar su habilidad consiste en dotarlos de mecanismos de tolerancia frente a los mismos. El diseño de sistemas de control tolerante a fallos es una área emergente en control automático que aglutina diversas disciplinas y áreas teóricas que tienen como objetivo alcanzar esta nueva funcionalidad. La tolerancia a fallos se puede obtener mediante el diagnóstico en tiempo real de los mismos, y mediante el envío de una señal de tipo evento discreto a un sistema supervisor una vez el fallo ha sido detectado, aislado y estimada su magnitud. A su vez el sistema supervisor activará los mecanismos de acomodación/recon?guración para continuar, si es posible, controlando el sistema en fallo. En este artículo se presentan los mecanismos de tolerancia que se pueden activar una vez se ha diagnosticado el fallo así como una arquitectura del sistema supervisor necesario para su implementación real. Finalmente, se presentará la aplicación de algunos de los mecanismos de tolerancia presentados en una aplicación real basada en el control global de la red de alcantarillado de Barcelona.

Palabras clave

Control tolerante; diagnóstico de fallos; detección de fallos; acomodación al fallo; reconfiguración del controlador

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