Modelado y control de turbinas eólicas marinas flotantes

M. Tomás-Rodríguez, M. Santos

Resumen

En este tutorial se aborda el tema del modelado y control de las turbinas eólicas marinas flotantes. En primer lugar se describen estos sistemas de extracción de energía eólica que están situados en alta mar, en aguas profundas, y se comentan algunas aproximaciones a su modelado. El control de potencia de estas turbinas es presentado con detalle, explicando los distintos tipos de control que buscan maximizar la obtención de energía. Se resalta el problema de la inducción de dinámicas inestables en la plataforma flotante debido al control del rotor del aerogenerador, una dificultad que no aparece en otros tipos de turbinas. La reducción de las vibraciones mediante estrategias de control estructural se ilustra con un ejemplo, usando un dispositivo pasivo que es complementado con un mecanismo denominado inerter, mostrando con resultados de simulación cómo se consiguen eliminar las oscilaciones de la turbina flotante. Este ejemplo está basado en resultados preliminares obtenidos en la investigación que llevan a cabo los autores de este tutorial.


Palabras clave

Modelado; Control; Aerogenerador; Turbinas eólicas flotantes; Energía marina; Energía renovable

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Referencias

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