Contradicciones acerca de cómo promover la escritura epistémica en las disciplinas: lo que hemos aprendido en EEUU

David R. Russell

Resumen

En este artículo se describe la tradición de la investigación anglófona de América del Norte acerca del rol de la escritura en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje en la educación superior. La tradición de investigación está asociada con un movimiento de reforma de la educación de más de cuarenta años, denominado “escritura a través del currículo” (Writing Across the Curriculum; WAC) o “escritura en las disciplinas” (Writing in the Disciplines; WID). El movimiento anima a los profesores de las diferentes disciplinas a interesarse por mejorar la escritura de sus estudiantes y su formación disciplinar a través de la escritura. La investigación desarrollada bajo los movimientos WAC y WID utiliza métodos propios de la investigación educativa (y, en menor medida, de la lingüística aplicada) para comprender los roles que juega la escritura en el trabajo y la formación disciplinar, a menudo en relación con la escritura en otras instituciones (empresas, gobierno, etc.). Situar en primer plano la escritura en los movimientos WAC y WID ha revelado seis contradicciones estructurales e institucionales en la educación superior de los EEUU: 1) la escritura como herramienta transversal frente a la escritura especializada, 2) la concepción del género como un contenedor de contenido –dualismo forma/contenido- versus su concepción como acción social, 3) la escritura como medio para evaluar el aprendizaje de contenidos frente a la escritura como una herramienta de desarrollo intelectual, profesional o personal, 4) la escritura para conseguir la meta social de la escolarización (epistémica) versus escribir para contribuir a la meta social del trabajo (pragmática) 5) las tesis de máster o doctorado como el último obstáculo educativo versus su consideración como la primera actuación profesional, 6) y la escritura (y su enseñanza) para la reproducción social y/o disciplinar versus la escritura (y su enseñanza) para el cambio social y/o disciplinar.


Palabras clave

Escritura en las disciplinas; la escritura para aprender; las contradicciones; la escritura a través del currículo; género

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