May Schools Develop Their Students' Intuition?

Jordi Villoro i Armengol, Santiago Estaún i Ferrer


The main purpose of the research has been to dictate the role intuition plays in the decision-making of undergraduate marketing students.

The study and process of decision-making has always been focused on statistics and mathematics by the business world and universities, while most psychological aspects have been avoided.

In recent years emotions, cognitive processes, intuition, etc., have increased their importance in the decision-making process; but they still have a long way to go.

The research, which this article is based on, has been performed under a sample of 404 individuals aged 20 to 25 years; half of which are marketing students in ESIC Business & Marketing School. Their decisions are analysed and compared with other collectives to observe if the information is an accurate significant variable for their decision-making.

A questionnaire was administered to the participants in which they were asked the possible success or failure of specific products if they were to be launched on the market. These products were real and chosen by marketing experts.

The participation of the individual in physical, cultural, etc. activities was also taken into account as well as their personal profile and psychographic data.

The results obtained vary significantly from a statistical point of view and prove that training, background, participations on social activities and the perception of one's intuitive capacity are keys to success when it comes to decision-making.


Intuition; Marketing; Decisions; University education; Social activities

Full Text:



Agor, W. (1989). Intuition in Organizations: Leading and Managing Productively. Evanston: Sage Publications.

Ambady, N. and Rosenthal, R. (1993). Half a Minute: Predicting Teacher Evaluations from Thin Slices of Nonverbal and Physical Attractiveness. Journal of personality and social psychology, 64, nº 3. 431-441.

Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., and Damasio, A. R. (2005). The Iowa Gambling Task and the somatic marker hypothesis: Some questions and answers. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9 (4), (pp.159-162).

Bransford, J. D. and Stein, B. S. (1988). Solución ideal de problemas. Barcelona: Labor.

Beilock, S.L., Bertenthal, B.I., McCoy, A.M. and Carr, T.H. (2004). Haste does not always make waste: expertise, direction of attention, and speed versus accuracy in performing sensorimotor skills. Psychon Bull Rev. 2004 Apr: 11 (2): 373-9.

Burke, L. A., and Sadler-Smith, E. (2006). Instructor intuition in the educational context. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 5, (pp.169−181).

Chaiken, S., and Trope, Y. (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York: Guilford Press.

Cialdini, R.B., Vincent, J.E., Lewis, S.K., Catalán, J., Wheeler, D. and Derby, B.L. (1975). Reciprocal Concessions Procedure for Inducing Compliance: The Door-in-the-Face Technique. Journal of personality and social psychology. Vol. 31. N. 2 (pp. 206-215).

Damasio, A.R. (1994). Descartes error: Emotion, reason and the human brain. Nueva York: Harper Collins

Damasio, A. R. (1996). The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 351(1346), 1413-1420.

Dane, E. and Pratt, M. G. (2007). Exploring intuition and its role in managerial decision making. Academy of Management Review, 32, 33−54.

Edwards, A., Elwyn, G., Covey, J., Matthews, E., and Pill, R. (2001). Presenting risk information – A review of the effects of “framing” and other manipulations on patient outcomes. Journal of Health Communication. 6 (1): 61–82.

Epstein, S., Lipson, A., Holstein, C. and Huh, E. (2008). Irrational reactions to negative outcomes: Evidence for two conceptual systems. Journal of personality and social psychology, nº 62, 328-339.

Evans, J. (2008). Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 1−24.

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.

Gigerenzer, G. (2007).The intelligence of the unconscious. Nova York: Viking Press.

Gilovich, T., Griffin, D. and Kahneman, D. (2002). Heuristics and biases. The psychology of intuitive judgment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gladwell, M. (2006). Inteligencia intuitiva. ¿Por qué sabemos la verdad en dos segundos? Madrid: Punto de lectura

Guilera, Ll. (2002).Vías de acceso conceptual a la resolución de problemas: Importancia de los estímulos sensoriales. Tesis doctoral. UAB.

Hammond, K.R. (1996). Human judgment and social policy: Irreductible uncertainty, inevitable error, unavoidable injustice. New York: Oxford University Press

Hellriegel, D., Jackson, S.E. and Slocum, J.W. (2002). Administración, un enfoque basado en competencias. Mèxic: Paraninfo.

Helmholtz, H. (1860/1962). Handbuch der physiologischen optik. Southall, J.P.C. Vol. 3. New York: Dover.

Hogarth, R. (2001). Educar la intuición. Barcelona: Editorial Paidós.

Holyoak, K. J and R. E. Nisbett (1988). Induction. En Sternberg, R.J y E.E Smith: The psychology of human thought. Editorial Cambridge, Univ. Press. N.Y

Hunt, E. and Agnoli, F. (1991). The Worfian hypothesis: A cognitive psychology perspective. Psychological Review, 98 (3). pp 377-389.

Jacobs, J.E. and Potenza, M. (1991). The Use of Judgement Heuristics to Make Social and Object Decisions: A Developmental Perspective. Child development. 62, February. (pp. 166–178).

Kahneman, D., Slovic P. and Tversky, A. (1982). Judgments under uncertainty. Heuristics and biases. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh. The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. Basic Books, New York.

Khatri, N. and Alvin, H. (2000). The role of intuition in strategic decision making. Human Relations, 53 (1), 57-86.

Maturana, H (1979). Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Paperback.

Loftus, E. F., and Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13(5), 585–589.

Maier, R. (1980). Toma de Decisiones en Grupo. México: Editorial Trillas

Majone, G. (2010). Foundations of risk regulation: science, decision-making, policy learning and institutional reform. Eur. J. Risk Regul. 1 (2010), pp. 5–19.

Mayer, R.E. (1992). Thinking, problem solving, cognition. New York: Freeman.

Metcalfe, J and Wiebe, D. (1987). Intuition in insight and non insight problem solving. Memoryand cognition, 15 (3). 238-246.

Mintzberg, H and Westley, F. (2001). Decision Making: It's Not What You Think MIT Sloan Management Review; 42. pg. 89

Miles, A. and Sadler-Smith, E. (2014). With recruitment I always feel I need to listen to my gut: the role of intuition in employee selection, Personnel Review, Vol. 43 Issue: 4, pp.606-627.

Neisser, U. (1963). The multiplicity of thought. British journal of psychology. 54. (pp. 1-14).

Parikh, J., Lank, A. and Neubauer, F. (1993). Intuition: The New Frontier of Management. Wiley-Blackwell

Plous, S. (1993). The psychology of judgment and decision making. McGraw-Hill.

Sadler-Smith, E., Allinson, C. W. and Hayes, J. (2000). Cognitive style and learning preferences: Some implications for CPD. Management Learning, 31, 239−256.

Stanovich, K. E., and West, R. F. (2000). Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 645−726.

Tversky, A. and Kahneman, D. (1983). Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: the conjunction fallacy in probability judgment. Psychological Review, 90, 293-315.

Vlek, Ch. (1984). Social decision methodology for technological projects. Dordrecht (Netherland) Kluwer academic publishers.

Volz, K. G. (2007). Finding Culturally (In) Dependent Levels of Self-Representation. Workshop. Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences

Wilson, T. (2002). Strangers to ourselves: discovering the adaptive unconscious. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Yates, J.F. (1990). Judgment and decision making. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc.

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

This journal is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NonDerivs 4.0 Internacional License.

Universitat Politècnica de València

e-ISSN: 2341-2593