The Significance of Private Tutoring in Improving English Language Literacy: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach


  • Douglas Andabati Candia Makerere University
  • James Mukoki Makerere University
  • Claire Ashaba Makerere University
  • Peter Jegrace Jehopio Makerere University
  • Brenda Kyasiimire Makerere University



Private tutoring, Uganda, Literacy, English, SEM


Low quality of primary education demonstrated by low academic achievement has persisted as a challenge to Uganda’s education sector. Although the country has progressed in improving other education indicators, this hasn’t translated into better schooling outcomes. Therefore, this study sought to determine the significance of private tutoring on English literacy levels. The study utilized secondary data from the Uwezo Uganda National Learning Assessment 2014 survey and generalized structural equation modelling to determine significant predictors. The variables that had a direct effect included private tutoring, child’s age and gender, pre-school attendance, school type, household size, household head gender and education level. The variables that had an indirect effect through private tutoring were region of residence, school type and household head education level. The study observed a need for the government through the Ministry of Education to come up with a regulatory framework to manage and control the practice of conducting private.


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Author Biographies

Douglas Andabati Candia, Makerere University

Department of Planning and Applied Statistics

James Mukoki, Makerere University

Department of Planning and Applied Statistics

Claire Ashaba, Makerere University

Department of Planning and Applied Statistics

Peter Jegrace Jehopio, Makerere University

Department of Planning and Applied Statistics

Brenda Kyasiimire, Makerere University

Department of Management Sciences


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How to Cite

Candia, D. A., Mukoki, J., Ashaba, C., Jehopio, P. J., & Kyasiimire, B. (2018). The Significance of Private Tutoring in Improving English Language Literacy: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach. Multidisciplinary Journal for Education, Social and Technological Sciences, 5(2), 1–18.