The Significance of Private Tutoring in Improving English Language Literacy: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

Douglas Andabati Candia, James Mukoki, Claire Ashaba, Peter Jegrace Jehopio, Brenda Kyasiimire


Low quality of primary education demonstrated by low academic achievement has persisted as a challenge to Uganda’s education sector. Although the country has progressed in improving other education indicators, this hasn’t translated into better schooling outcomes. Therefore, this study sought to determine the significance of private tutoring on English literacy levels. The study utilized secondary data from the Uwezo Uganda National Learning Assessment 2014 survey and generalized structural equation modelling to determine significant predictors. The variables that had a direct effect included private tutoring, child’s age and gender, pre-school attendance, school type, household size, household head gender and education level. The variables that had an indirect effect through private tutoring were region of residence, school type and household head education level. The study observed a need for the government through the Ministry of Education to come up with a regulatory framework to manage and control the practice of conducting private.


Private tutoring; Uganda; Literacy; English; SEM

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