Postural and dynamic analysis of the human body: The relevance of the functional modulator factors in the methodological design

Albert Puig-Diví, Anna Prats-Puig


Functional studies analyze the interaction between the human body and its environment studying both, the posture and the movement. It is well known that at the Universities where health science and sports studies are taught there is a need to raise academic activities involving functional studies.

The main objective is to make awareness of the factors that can modulate a certain function in the human body and must be well known for university students to perform a good research projects and career. To do this, we present a detailed list of intrinsic and extrinsic functional modulator factors (FMF) of the human body and propose a new methodology to teach those skills. During both, the project data collection and data reduction, FMF such as sitting and standing postures or walking, running and jumping movements must be taken into account. The recognition of the FMF that may influence the results must be previously known and identified to succeed in the methodological design of functional studies of the human body.

The novelty of our work is not to direct the attention to the lecturer but to focus it to the student’s academic support to accomplish the active work like the fieldwork presented in this paper. In conclusion, the understanding of the FMF by university students using fieldwork activities during their degree would help them to develop a critical attitude in terms of validity and scientific evidence.




Modulating factors; Function; Posture; Movement; Methodology

Full Text:



Abernethy, B., Hanrahan, S. J., Kippers, V., Mackinnon, L. T., & Pandy, M. G. (2005). The biophysical foundations of human movement. (2ª ed.) Leeds: Human Kinetics.

Alemán, O., Pérez, N., & Sánchez, N. (2003). Rehabilitación vestibular. Rev Med Univ Navarra, 47, 72-76.

Baydal-Bertomeu, J. M., Guillem, R., Soler-Gracia, C., Peydro de Moya, M. F., Prat, J. M., & Barona de, G. R. (2004). Determinación de los patrones de comportamiento postural en población sana espa-ola. Acta Otorrinolaringol.Esp., 55, 260-269.

Bertoti, D. B. (2004). Functional Neurorehabilitation Through the Life Span. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co.

Blanchard, Y., Carey, S., Coffey, J., Cohen, A., Harris, T., Michlik, S. et al. (2005). The influence of concurrent cognitive tasks on postural sway in children. Pediatr.Phys Ther., 17, 189-193.

Brown, L. A., Shumway-Cook, A., & Woollacott, M. H. (1999). Attentional demands and postural recovery: the effects of aging. J.Gerontol.A Biol.Sci.Med Sci., 54, M165-M171.

Cano, R. & Collado, S. (2012). Neurorrehabilitación. Métodos específicos de valoración y tratamiento. Madrid: Médica Panamericana.

Collado, S. (2002). Análisis de la marcha humana con plataformas dinamométricas. Influencia del transporte de carga. [Tesis Doctoral]. Madrid.

D'Hondt, E., Deforche, B., De, B., I, & Lenoir, M. (2008). Childhood obesity affects fine motor skill performance under different postural constraints. Neurosci.Lett., 440, 72-75.

Damiano, D. L., Laws, E., Carmines, D. V., & Abel, M. F. (2006). Relationship of spasticity to knee angular velocity and motion during gait in cerebral palsy. Gait Posture, 23, 1-8.

de Graaf-Peters, V. B., Blauw-Hospers, C. H., Dirks, T., Bakker, H., Bos, A. F., & Hadders-Algra, M. (2007). Development of postural control in typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy: possibilities for intervention? Neurosci.Biobehav.Rev, 31, 1191-1200.

Debrabant, J., Gheysen, F., Vingerhoets, G., & Van, W. H. (2012). Age-related differences in predictive response timing in children: evidence from regularly relative to irregularly paced reaction time performance. Hum Mov Sci, 31, 801-810.

Dufour, M. & Pillu, M. (2006). Biomecánica funcional. Barcelona: MASSON - Elsevier.

Ferdjallah, M., Harris, G. F., Smith, P., & Wertsch, J. J. (2002). Analysis of postural control synergies during quiet standing in healthy children and children with cerebral palsy. Clin.Biomech., 17, 203-210.

Gage, J. R., Schwartz, M. H., Koop, S. E., & Novacheck, T. F. (2009). The identification and treatment of gait problems in cerebral palsy. (2ª ed.) London: Mac Keith Press.

Garbanzo-Vargas, G. (2007). Factores asociados al rendimiento académico en estudiantes universitarios, una reflexión desde la calidad de la educación superior pública. Revista Educación, 31, 43-63.

Geuze, R. H. (2003). Static balance and developmental coordination disorder. Hum Mov Sci, 22, 527-548.

Greve, J. M., Cug, M., Dulgeroglu, D., Brech, G. C., & Alonso, A. C. (2013). Relationship between anthropometric factors, gender, and balance under unstable conditions in young adults. Biomed.Res.Int., 2013, 850424.

Grieve, D. W. & Gear, R. J. (1966). The relationship between length of stride, step frequency, time of swing and speed of walking for children and adults. Ergonomics, 9, 379-399.

Hernandez, M. E., Ashton-Miller, J. A., & Alexander, N. B. (2012). The effect of age, movement direction, and target size on the maximum speed of targeted COP movements in healthy women. Hum Mov Sci, 31, 1213-1223.

Hewitt, P. G. (2004). Física Conceptual. (9ª ed.) México.

Hicks, C. L., von Baeyer, C. L., Spafford, P. A., van, K., I, & Goodenough, B. (2001). The Faces Pain Scale-Revised: toward a common metric in pediatric pain measurement. Pain, 93, 173-183.

Horak, F. B. & Nashner, L. M. (1986). Central programming of postural movements: adaptation to altered support-surface configurations. J Neurophysiol., 55, 1369-1381.

Huang, M. H. & Brown, S. H. (2013). Age differences in the control of postural stability during reaching tasks. Gait.Posture., 38, 837-842.

Ibarra, E. (2006). Una nueva definición de "dolor". Un imperativo de nuestros días. Rev.Soc.Esp.Dolor, 13, 65-72.

Jara, D., Velarde, H., Gordillo, G., Guerra, G., León, I., Arroyo, C. et al. (2008). Factores influyentes en el rendimiento académico de estudiantes del primer a-o de medicina. An Fac med, 69, 193-197

Johnston, T. E., Watson, K. E., Ross, S. A., Gates, P. E., Gaughan, J. P., Lauer, R. T. et al. (2011). Effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program on impairment and function for children with cerebral palsy. Dev.Med Child Neurol., 53, 742-750.

Joshi, J. & Kotwal, P. (2008). Essentials of Orthopaedics and Applied Physiotherapy. Elsevier.

Kirtley, C. (2006). Clinical gait analysis: theory and practice. London: Churchill Livingstone - Elsevier.

Ku, P. X., Abu Osman, N. A., Yusof, A., & Wan Abas, W. A. (2012). Biomechanical evaluation of the relationship between postural control and body mass index. J.Biomech., 45, 1638-1642.

Li, Y., Wang, W., Crompton, R. H., & Gunther, M. M. (2001). Free vertical moments and transverse forces in human walking and their role in relation to arm-swing. J.Exp.Biol., 204, 47-58.

López, A. & López, E. (2003). Biofísica aplicada a la biomecánica del cuerpo humano. Madrid.

Martín, E., Barona, R., Comeche, C., & Baydal, J. M. (2004). Análisis de la interacción visuo-vestibular y la influencia visual en el control postural. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp, 55, 9-16.

McGraw, B., McClenaghan, B. A., Williams, H. G., Dickerson, J., & Ward, D. S. (2000). Gait and postural stability in obese and nonobese prepubertal boys. Arch.Phys Med Rehabil., 81, 484-489.

Méndez, R. (2006). Evaluación y análisis de la influencia de la manipulación global de la pelvis: estudio baropodométrico y estabilométrico. [Tesis Doctoral]. Madrid. Scientific European Federation of Osteopaths-Escuela de Osteopatía de Madrid.

Nerín, S., Villarroya, A., Cepero, E., Gómez, J., Marco, C., & Miguelena, M. (1999). Diferencias en la marcha según el sexo. Biomecánica, 7, 27-38.

Oatis, C. A. (2009). Kinesiology: the mechanics and pathomechanics of human movement. (2ª ed.) Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Paillard, T. & Borel, L. (2013). Unilateral and bilateral fatiguing contractions similarly alter postural stability but differently modify postural position on bipedal stance. Hum Mov Sci, 32, 353-362.

Perry, J. & Burnfield, J. M. (2010). Gait analysis: normal and pathological function. (2ª ed.) Thorofare, NJ (USA): SLACK Incorporated.

Peydro de Moya, M. F., Baydal-Bertomeu, J. M., & Vivas Broseta, M. J. (2005). Evaluación y rehabilitación del equilibrio mediante posturografía. Rehabilitación, 39, 315-323.

Quiles, M. J., van-der Hofstadt, C. J., & Quiles, Y. (2004). Instrumentos de evaluación del dolor en pacientes pediátricos: una revisión. Rev.Soc.Esp.Dolor, 11, 360-369.

Rama López, J. & Pérez Fernández, N. (2003). Pruebas vestibulares y posturografía. Rev Med Univ Navarra, 47, 21-28.

Rankin, J. K., Woollacott, M. H., Shumway-Cook, A., & Brown, L. A. (2000). Cognitive influence on postural stability: a neuromuscular analysis in young and older adults. J Gerontol.A Biol.Sci Med Sci, 55, M112-M119.

Rueda, M. (2004). Podología. Los desequilibrios del pie. Barcelona: Paidotribo.

Sánchez, J. J., Prat, J. M., Hoyos, J. V., Viosca, E., Soler, C., Comín, M. et al. (1999). Biomecánica de la marcha humana normal y patológica. Valencia: Publicaciones Instituto Biomecánico de Valencia.

Schmidt, R. A. & Lee, T. D. (2005). Motor Control and Learning: A Behavioural Emphasis. (4ª ed.) Leeds: Human Kinetics.

Shumway-Cook, A. & Woollacott, M. H. (2007). Motor Control. Translating Research into Clinical Practice. (3ª ed.) Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Suay, F., Ricarte, J., & Salvador, A. (1998). Indicadores psicológicos del sobreentrenamiento y agotamiento. Rev Psicol Dep, 7-27.

Sutherland, D. (1997). The development of mature gait. Gait & Posture, 6, 163-170.

Sutherland, D. H., Olshen, R. A., Biden, E. N., & Wyatt, M. P. (1988). The development of mature walking. London: Mac Keith Press.

Tiernan, C. W. & Angulo-Barroso, R. M. (2008). Constrained motor-perceptual task in infancy: effects of sensory modality. J.Mot.Behav., 40, 133-142.

Tomita, H., Fukaya, Y., Honma, S., Ueda, T., Yamamoto, Y., & Shionoya, K. (2010). Anticipatory postural muscle activity associated with bilateral arm flexion while standing in individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy: A pilot study. Neurosci.Lett., 479, 166-170.

Trew, M. & Everett, T. (2006). Fundamentos del movimiento humano. (5ª ed.) Barcelona: Masson & Elsevier.

Vaughan, C. L., Davis, B. L., & O'Connor, J. C. (1999). Dynamics of human gait. (2ª ed.) Western Cape: Human Kinetics Publishers.

Viel, É., Asencio, G., Blanc, Y., Casillas, J.-M., Esnault, M., Laassel, E.-M. et al. (2002). La marcha humana, la carrera y el salto: Biomecánica, exploraciones, normas y alteraciones. Barcelona: MASSON.

Viladot, A. (2000). Lecciones básicas de biomecánica del aparato locomotor. Barcelona: Springer-Verlag Iberica.

Viner, R. M., Clark, C., Taylor, S. J., Bhui, K., Klineberg, E., Head, J. et al. (2008). Longitudinal risk factors for persistent fatigue in adolescents. Arch.Pediatr.Adolesc.Med, 162, 469-475.

Westcott, S. L., Lowes, L. P., & Richardson, P. K. (1997). Evaluation of postural stability in children: current theories and assessment tools. Phys.Ther., 77, 629-645.

Whittle, M. W. (2002). Gait Analysis: an introduction. (3ª ed.) London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Wiebers, D. O., Dale, A. J., Kokmen, E., & Swanson, J. W. (2007). Examination in neurology. (7ª ed.) Barcelona: Mayo Foundation.

Woollacott, M. H., Burtner, P., Jensen, J., Jasiewicz, J., Roncesvalles, N., & Sveistrup, H. (1998). Development of postural responses during standing in healthy children and children with spastic diplegia. Neurosci.Biobehav.Rev, 22, 583-589.

Woollacott, M. H. & Shumway-Cook, A. (2005). Postural dysfunction during standing and walking in children with cerebral palsy: what are the underlying problems and what new therapies might improve balance? Neural Plast., 12, 211-219.

Zaino, C. A. & McCoy, S. W. (2008). Reliability and comparison of electromyographic and kinetic measurements during a standing reach task in children with and without cerebral palsy. Gait.Posture., 27, 128-137.

Zok, M., Mazza, C., & Cappozzo, A. (2008). Should the instructions issued to the subject in traditional static posturography be standardised? Med Eng Phys., 30, 913-916.

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

This journal is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NonDerivs 4.0 Internacional License.

Universitat Politècnica de València

e-ISSN: 2341-2593