Adoption of E-Learning at Higher Education Institutions: A Systematic Literature Review




E-learning, digital learning, higher education institutions, higher education, ICT in education


The concept of e-learning offers a number of benefits, however, the effective adoption of e-learning systems at HEIs is a relatively new concept and thus a challenging task. The comprehensive review of extant literature on the topic of adoption of e-learning systems at HEIs is provided. Using PRISMA search technique, relevant articles published from 2005 to 2020 owing to the widespread adoption of e-learning since 2005 were selected. The paper identifies and puts forward the level of compatibility and readiness of students and teachers in adopting e-learning, factors that motivate and hinder the adoption of e-learning respectively, benefits of adopting an e-learning system, and the strategies for the effective implementation of e-learning at the higher education institutions. In this realm of COVID-19 and e-learning, this paper also envisage different strategies, policies and recommendations for implementing e-learning in an effective way at HEIs.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Rushna Khalil Awan, Sukkur IBA University

Business Administration Department

Gul Afshan, Sukkur IBA University

Business Administration Department

Atia Bano Memon, University of Sindh

Department of Computer Science


Abou El-Seoud, M. S., Taj-Eddin, I. A., Seddiek, N., El-Khouly, M. M., & Nosseir, A. (2014). E-learning and students' motivation: A research study on the effect of e-learning on higher education. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 9(4), 20-26.

Ahmed, S. S., Khan, E., Faisal, M., & Khan, S. (2017). The potential and challenges of MOOCs in Pakistan: a perspective of students and faculty. Asian Association of Open Universities Journal.

Akçayır, M., Akçayır, G., Pektaş, H. M., & Ocak, M. A. (2016). Augmented reality in science laboratories: The effects of augmented reality on university students' laboratory skills and attitudes toward science laboratories. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 334-342.

Al-Azawei, A., Parslow, P., & Lundqvist, K. (2017). Investigating the effect of learning styles in a blended e-learning system: An extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM). Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(2).

Al-Okaily, M., Alqudah, H., Matar, A., Lutfi, A., & Taamneh, A. (2020). Dataset on the Acceptance of e-learning System among Universities Students' under the COVID-19 Pandemic Conditions. Data in brief, 32, 106176.

Alâ€Taweel, F. B., Abdulkareem, A. A., Gul, S. S., & Alshami, M. L. (2021). Evaluation of technologyâ€based learning by dental students during the pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019. European Journal of Dental Education, 25(1), 183-190.

Al Shuaili, K., Al Musawi, A. S., & Hussain, R. M. (2020). The effectiveness of using augmented reality in teaching geography curriculum on the achievement and attitudes of Omani 10th Grade Students. Multidisciplinary Journal for Education, Social Technological Sciences, 7(2), 20-29.

Alqahtani, A. Y., & Rajkhan, A. A. J. E. s. (2020). E-learning critical success factors during the covid-19 pandemic: A comprehensive analysis of e-learning managerial perspectives. 10(9), 216.

Au, O. T.-S., Li, K., & Wong, T. (2019). Student persistence in open and distance learning: success factors and challenges. Asian Association of Open Universities Journal.

Azlan, C. A., Wong, J. H. D., Tan, L. K., Huri, M. S. N. A., Ung, N. M., Pallath, V., Tan, C. P. L., Yeong, C. H., & Ng, K. H. (2020). Teaching and learning of postgraduate medical physics using Internet-based e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic-A case study from Malaysia. Physica Medica, 80, 10-16.

Bates, A. T. (2005). Technology, e-learning and distance education: Routledge.

Birch, D., & Burnett, B. (2009). Bringing academics on board: Encouraging institution-wide diffusion of e-learning environments. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(1).

Cha, H., Park, T., & Seo, J. J. S. (2020). What should be considered when developing ICT-integrated classroom models for a developing country? , 12(7), 2967.

Costa, C., Alvelos, H., & Teixeira, L. (2012). The use of Moodle e-learning platform: a study in a Portuguese University. Procedia Technology, 5, 334-343.

Erdmann, A., & Torres Marín, A. J. (2019). Can we improve academic performance and student satisfaction without additional time cost for teachers? Evidence from a blended methodology in Microeconomics. Multidisciplinary Journal for Education, Social Technological Sciences, 6(2), 54-91.

Fereday, J., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: A hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. International journal of qualitative methods, 5(1), 80-92.

Gerbic, P. (2011). Teaching using a blended approach-what does the literature tell us? Educational Media International, 48(3), 221-234.

Grimus, M. (2020). Emerging technologies: Impacting learning, pedagogy and curriculum development. In Emerging technologies and pedagogies in the curriculum (pp. 127-151): Springer.

Hasan, R., Palaniappan, S., Mahmood, S., Abbas, A., Sarker, K. U., & Sattar, M. U. (2020). Predicting student performance in higher educational institutions using video learning analytics and data mining techniques. Applied Sciences, 10(11), 3894.

Holt, D., Palmer, S., Munro, J., Solomonides, I., Gosper, M., Hicks, M., Sankey, M., Allan, G., & Hollenbeck, R. (2013). Leading the quality management of online learning environments in Australian higher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 29(3).

Huda, M., Maseleno, A., Atmotiyoso, P., Siregar, M., Ahmad, R., Jasmi, K., & Muhamad, N. (2018). Big data emerging technology: insights into innovative environment for online learning resources. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(1), 23-36.

Ibrahim, M. M., & Nat, M. (2019). Blended learning motivation model for instructors in higher education institutions. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(1), 1-21.

Islam, A. N., & Azad, N. (2015). Satisfaction and continuance with a learning management system: Comparing perceptions of educators and students. The International Journal of Information Learning Technology.

Jones, C., Ramanau, R., Cross, S., & Healing, G. (2010). Net generation or Digital Natives: Is there a distinct new generation entering university? Computers Education, 54(3), 722-732.

Kamba, M. (2009). Problems, challenges and benefits of implementing e-learning in Nigerian universities: An empirical study. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 4(1), 66-69.

Kasim, N. N. M., & Khalid, F. (2016). Choosing the right learning management system (LMS) for the higher education institution context: A systematic review. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 11(6).

Kennedy, G. E., Judd, T. S., Churchward, A., Gray, K., & Krause, K.-L. (2008). First year students' experiences with technology: Are they really digital natives? Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24(1).

Khan, A. A., & Umair, S. (2017). Handbook of research on mobile devices and smart gadgets in K-12 education: IGI Global.

Kim, H. J., Hong, A. J., & Song, H.-D. (2019). The roles of academic engagement and digital readiness in students' achievements in university e-learning environments. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(1), 1-18.

Kjellsdotter, A. (2020). What matter (s)? A didactical analysis of primary school teachers' ICT integration. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 52(6), 823-839.

Kobusińska, A., Leung, C., Hsu, C.-H., Raghavendra, S., & Chang, V. (2018). Emerging trends, issues and challenges in Internet of Things, Big Data and cloud computing. In: Elsevier.

Lange, C., & Costley, J. (2020). Improving online video lectures: learning challenges created by media. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 17(1), 1-18.

Leo, S., Alsharari, N. M., Abbas, J., & Alshurideh, M. T. (2021). From Offline to Online Learning: A Qualitative Study of Challenges and Opportunities as a Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic in the UAE Higher Education Context. The Effect of Coronavirus Disease on Business Intelligence, 334, 203.

Maldonado, U. P. T., Khan, G. F., Moon, J., & Rho, J. J. (2011). Eâ€learning motivation and educational portal acceptance in developing countries. Online Information Review.

Mayer, R. E. (2014). Multimedia instruction. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 385-399): Springer.

Mehall, S. (2021). Purposeful interpersonal interaction and the point of diminishing returns for graduate learners. The Internet Higher Education, 48, 100774.

Memon, A. B., & Meyer, K. (2017). Why we need dedicated web-based collaboration platforms for inter-organizational connectivity? A research synthesis. International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science, 9(11), 1-11.

Moore, J. L., Dickson-Deane, C., & Galyen, K. (2011). e-Learning, online learning, and distance learning environments: Are they the same? The Internet Higher Education, 14(2), 129-135.

Mtebe, J. S., & Raphael, C. J. A. J. o. E. T. (2018). Key factors in learners' satisfaction with the e-learning system at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 34(4).

Mumtaz, N., Saqulain, G., & Mumtaz, N. (2021). Online academics in Pakistan: COVID-19 and beyond. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(1), 283.

Naveed, Q. N., Muhammed, A., Sanober, S., Qureshi, M. R. N., & Shah, A. (2017). Barriers Effecting Successful Implementation of E-Learning in Saudi Arabian Universities. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 12(6).

Ngampornchai, A., & Adams, J. (2016). Students' acceptance and readiness for E-learning in Northeastern Thailand. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 13(1), 1-13.

Olum, R., Atulinda, L., Kigozi, E., Nassozi, D. R., Mulekwa, A., Bongomin, F., Kiguli, S. J. J. o. M. E., & Development, C. (2020). Medical education and E-learning during COVID-19 pandemic: awareness, attitudes, preferences, and barriers among undergraduate medicine and nursing students at Makerere University, Uganda. 7, 2382120520973212.

Ouatik, F., & Ouatik, F. (2021). Learning Management System Comparison: New Approach Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making. Paper presented at the International Conference on Business Intelligence.

Panda, S., & Mishra, S. (2007). Eâ€Learning in a Mega Open University: Faculty attitude, barriers and motivators. Educational Media International, 44(4), 323-338.

Paul, J., & Criado, A. R. (2020). The art of writing literature review: What do we know and what do we need to know? International Business Review, 29(4), 101717.

Paul, J., Lim, W. M., O'Cass, A., Hao, A. W., & Bresciani, S. (2021). Scientific procedures and rationales for systematic literature reviews (SPARâ€4â€SLR). International Journal of Consumer Studies.

Pham, L., Limbu, Y. B., Bui, T. K., Nguyen, H. T., & Pham, H. T. (2019). Does e-learning service quality influence e-learning student satisfaction and loyalty? Evidence from Vietnam. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(1), 1-26.

Popoola, S. O., & Olajide, O. (2021). Influence of Library Anxiety and Computer Literacy Skills on Use of Library Information Resources by Undergraduates in Private Universities in Southwest Nigeria. International Information Library Review, 1-19.

Rasheed, R. A., Kamsin, A., & Abdullah, N. A. (2020). Challenges in the online component of blended learning: A systematic review. Computers Education, 144, 103701.

Richardson, M., Abraham, C., & Bond, R. J. P. b. (2012). Psychological correlates of university students' academic performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 138(2), 353.

Saeed Al-Maroof, R., Alhumaid, K., & Salloum, S. (2021). The continuous intention to use e-learning, from two different perspectives. Education Sciences, 11(1), 6.

Sahibzada, U. F., Xu, Y., Afshan, G., & Khalid, R. (2021). Knowledge-oriented leadership towards organizational performance: symmetrical and asymmetrical approach. Business Process Management Journal.

Sánchez-Sordo, J. M. (2019). Data mining techniques for the study of online learning from an extended approach. Multidisciplinary Journal for Education, Social Technological Sciences, 6(1), 1-24.

Sayaf, A. M., Alamri, M. M., Alqahtani, M. A., & Al-Rahmi, W. M. (2021). Information and Communications Technology Used in Higher Education: An Empirical Study on Digital Learning as Sustainability. Sustainability, 13(13), 7074.

Singh, V., & Thurman, A. (2019). How many ways can we define online learning? A systematic literature review of definitions of online learning (1988-2018). American Journal of Distance Education, 33(4), 289-306.

Tarhini, A., Hone, K., & Liu, X. (2014). Measuring the moderating effect of gender and age on e-learning acceptance in England: A structural equation modeling approach for an extended technology acceptance model. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 51(2), 163-184.

Williams, R. I., Clark, L. A., Clark, W. R., & Raffo, D. M. (2020). Re-examining systematic literature review in management research: Additional benefits and execution protocols. European Management Journal.

Wu, J.-H., Tennyson, R. D., & Hsia, T.-L. (2010). A study of student satisfaction in a blended e-learning system environment. Computers Education, 55(1), 155-164.




How to Cite

Awan, R. K., Afshan, G., & Memon, A. B. (2021). Adoption of E-Learning at Higher Education Institutions: A Systematic Literature Review. Multidisciplinary Journal for Education, Social and Technological Sciences, 8(2), 74–91.