Development of lower-limb rehabilitation exercises using 3-PRS Parallel Robot and Dynamic Movement Primitives

Rafael J. Escarabajal, Fares J. Abu-Dakka, José L. Pulloquinga, Vicente Mata, Marina Vallés, Ángel Valera


The design of rehabilitation exercises applied to sprained ankles requires extreme caution, regarding the trajectories and the speed of the movements that will affect the patient. This paper presents a technique that allows a 3-PRS parallel robot to control such exercises, consisting of dorsi/plantar flexion and inversion/eversion ankle movements. The work includes a position control scheme for the parallel robot in order to follow a reference trajectory for each limb with the possibility of stopping the exercise in mid-execution without control loss. This stop may be motivated by the forces that the robot applies to the patient, acting like an alarm mechanism. The procedure introduced here is based on Dynamic Movement Primitives (DMPs).


Parallel robot; rehabilitation robot; Dynamic Movement Primitives; position control

Full Text:



Abu-Dakka, F. J., Valera, A., Escalera, J. A., Vallés, M., Mata, V., & Abderrahim, M. (2015). Trajectory adaptation and learning for ankle rehabilitation using a 3-PRS parallel robot. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 9245, 483-494.

Atkeson, C. G., Moore, A. W., & Schaal, S. (1997). Locally Weighted Learning. Artificial Intelligence Review, 11(1-5), 11-73.

Brockett, C. L., & Chapman, G. J. (2016). Biomechanics of the ankle. Orthopaedics and Trauma, 30(3), 232-238.

Dai, J. S., Zhao, T., & Nester, C. (2004). Sprained Ankle Physiotherapy Based Mechanism Synthesis and Stiffness Analysis of a Robotic Rehabilitation Device. Autonomous Robots, 16(2), 207-218.

Díaz-Rodríguez, M., Mata, V., Valera, Á., & Page, Á. (2010). A methodology for dynamic parameters identification of 3-DOF parallel robots in terms of relevant parameters. Mechanism and Machine Theory, 45(9), 1337-1356.

Díaz, I., Gil, J. J., & Sánchez, E. (2011). Lower-Limb Robotic Rehabilitation: Literature Review and Challenges. Journal of Robotics, 2011(i), 1-11.

Fanger, Y., Umlauft, J., & Hirche, S. (2016). Gaussian Processes for Dynamic Movement Primitives with application in knowledge-based cooperation. IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2016-Novem, 3913-3919.

Gosselin, C., & Angeles, J. (1990). Singularity Analysis of Closed-Loop Kinematic Chains. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 6(3), 281-290.

Hesse, S., & Uhlenbrock, D. (2000). A mechanized gait trainer for restoration of gait. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 37(6), 701-708.

Ijspeert, A. J., Nakanishi, J., Hoffmann, H., Pastor, P., & Schaal, S. (2013). Dynamical movement primitives: Learning attractor models formotor behaviors. Neural Computation, 25(2), 328-373.

Ijspeert, A. J., Nakanishi, J., & Schaal, S. (2002). Movement imitation with nonlinear dynamical systems in humanoid robots. Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2, 1398-1403.

Liu, G., Gao, J., Yue, H., Zhang, X., & Lu, G. (2006). Design and kinematics simulation of parallel robots for ankle rehabilitation. 2006 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, ICMA 2006, 2006, 1109-1113.

Nakanishi, J., Morimoto, J., Endo, G., Cheng, G., Schaal, S., & Kawato, M. (2004). Learning from demonstration and adaptation of biped locomotion. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 47(2-3), 79-91.

Nemec, B., & Ude, A. (2012). Action sequencing using dynamic movement primitives. Robotica, 30(5), 837-846.

Patel, Y. D., & George, P. M. (2012). Parallel Manipulators Applications-A Survey. Modern Mechanical Engineering, 02(03), 57-64.

Paul, R. P. (1981). Robot Manipulators: Mathematics, Programming, and Control : the Computer Control of Robot Manipulators (p. 279).

Reinkensmeyer, D. J., Aoyagi, D., Emken, J. L., Galvez, J. A., Ichinose, W., Kerdanyan, G., Maneekobkunwong, S., Minakata, K., Nessler, J. A., Weber, R., Roy, R. R., De Leon, R., Bobrow, J. E., Harkema, S. J., & Reggie Edgerton, V. (2006). Tools for understanding and optimizing robotic gait training. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 43(5), 657-670.

Safran, M. R., Benedetti, R. S., Bartolozzi, A. R., & Mandelbaum, B. R. (1999). Lateral ankle sprains: A comprehensive review part 1: Etiology, pathoanatomy, histopathogenesis, and diagnosis. In Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (Vol. 31, Issue 7 SUPPL., pp. S429-S437).

Saglia, J. A., Tsagarakis, N. G., Dai, J. S., & Caldwell, D. G. (2013). Control strategies for patient-assisted training using the ankle rehabilitation robot (ARBOT). IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 18(6), 1799-1808.

Schaal, S. (2006). Dynamic Movement Primitives -A Framework for Motor Control in Humans and Humanoid Robotics. In Adaptive Motion of Animals and Machines (pp. 261-280).

Sui, P., Yao, L., Lin, Z., Yan, H., & Dai, J. S. (2009). Analysis and synthesis of ankle motion and rehabilitation robots. 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, ROBIO 2009, 3, 2533-2538.

Tsoi, Y. H., Xie, S. Q., & Graham, A. E. (2009). Design, modeling and control of an ankle rehabilitation robot. Studies in Computational Intelligence, 177, 377-399.

Vallés, M., Díaz-Rodrguez, M., Valera, Á., Mata, V., & Page, Á. (2012). Mechatronic development and dynamic control of a 3-dof parallel manipulator. Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, 40(4), 434-452.

Xie, S. (2016). Advanced robotics for medical rehabilitation: current state of the art and recent advances. In Springer tracts in advanced robotics (Issue 108).

Yoon, J., Ryu, J., & Lim, K. B. (2006). Reconfigurable ankle rehabilitation robot for various exercises. Journal of Robotic Systems, 22(SUPPL.), 15-33.

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

This journal is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NonDerivatives 4.0 Internacional License.

Universitat Politècnica de València

e-ISSN: 2341-2593