Marco legislativo para la gestión de sedimentos en los Estados Unidos

P. A. Garcia-Chevesich, S. L. Jones, J. M. Daniels, R. Valdés-Pineda, H. Venegas-Quiñones, R. Pizarro

Resumen

La erosión de sedimentos es un problema serio, con aproximadamente 75.000 millones de toneladas de suelo erosionadas anualmente en todo el mundo (Pimentel y Kounang, 1998). Aunque la erosión es un proceso natural, ésta puede acelerarse debido a la actividad humana y a los cambios en el uso de la tierra. El incremento de la erosión del suelo más allá de su umbral natural puede resultar en una degradación ambiental significativa y una disminución de la productividad económica. La implementación de leyes y prácticas de gestión de sedimentos es fundamental para disminuir significativamente la erosión del suelo y preservar los recursos ambientales. En los Estados Unidos, existe un sistema integral de leyes y regulaciones a nivel nacional, estatal, del condado y de ciudad que gobiernan la erosión y el control de sedimentos. Las leyes y los incentivos voluntarios descritos en nuestro trabajo han reducido significativamente los impactos negativos de los sedimentos transportados en las escorrentías urbanas y rurales, han reducido los contaminantes químicos y biológicos en los sedimentos transportados hacia los ecosistemas acuáticos y han mejorado la calidad del aire en varias ciudades con problemas de contaminación atmosférica. Tener un enfoque multifacético para monitorizar la erosión y mejorar la gestión del suelo es importante para un ambiente y una economía sanos y productivos.


Palabras clave

Sedimentos; Estados Unidos; Políticas

Texto completo:

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