Hidrología de zonas áridas y semiáridas

José D. Salas


La hidrología de cuencas de zonas áridas y semiáridas es de suma importancia para el desarrollo y manejo de los recursos hidráulicos. En este artículo se describen características climáticas, hidrológicas, y geomorfológicas propias de dichas zonas; modelos matemáticos de las componentes principales del ciclo hidrológico tales como la precipitación, infiltración y escorrentía; modelos matemáticos de cuencas, y el efecto de cambios climáticos en el análisis y síntesis de datos hidrológicos en zonas áridas y semiáridas. Este artículo es una version modificada de la conferencia magistral dada por el autor con motivo de la II Conferencia Internacional sobre “Hidrología Mediterránea” realizada en Valencia, España, Nov. 27-28, 1996.

Palabras clave

Hidrología; Zonas áridas; Ciclo hidrológico; Precipitación; Modelos matemáticos

Texto completo:



Chin, E.H. (1977). Modeling daily precipitation ocurrence process with a Markov chain . Water Resour. Res. 13(6), 949-956. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR013i006p00949

Chebaane, M., Salas, J.D., y Boes, D.C. (1992). Modeling of monthly intermittent streamflow processes. Water Resources Papers, 105, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Chebaane, M., Salas, J.D., y Boes, D.C. (1995). Product periodic autoregressive processes for modeling intermittent monthly streamflows. Water Resour. Res., 31(6), 1513-1518. https://doi.org/10.1029/95WR00144

Dubayah, R. y Wood, E.F. (1996). Multiscaling analysis in distributed modeling and remote sensing: an application using soil moisture. En From Scale in Remote Sensing and GIS, Editado por D.A. Quattrochi y M.F. Goodchild, CRC/Lewis Publ., Boca Raton, Florida.

Eagleson, P.S. (1978). Climate, soil and vegetation: 2. The distribution of annual precipitation derived from observed storm sequences. Water Resour. Res., 14(5), 713-721. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR014i005p00713

El-Ashry M.T. y Gibbons, D.C. (1988). New water policies for the west. En Water and Arid Lands of the Western United States, editado por M.T. El-Ashry y D.C. Gibbons, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511666902.010

Eltahir, E.A. (1996). El Niño and the natural variability in the flow of the Nile River. Water Resour. Res., 32(1), 131-137. https://doi.org/10.1029/95WR02968

Entekhabi, D., Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., y Eagleson, P.S. (1989). Proabilistic representation of the temporal rainfall process by a modified Neyman-Scott rectangular pulse model: parameter estimation validation. Water Resour. Res., 25(2), 295-302. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR025i002p00295

Frances, F. (1991). Utilizacion de la informacion historica en el analisis regional de las avenidas, tesis doctoral, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, España.

Graf, W.L. (1990). Definition of flood plains along arid-region rivers. En Flood Geomorphology, editado por V.R. Baker y otros, J. Wiley, N. York.

Greenholtz, D.E., Yeh, T.C.J., Nash, M.S.B., y Wierenga, P.J. (1988). Geostatistical analysis of soil hydrologic properties in a field plot. Jour. Contaminant Hydrology, 3, 227-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-7722(88)90033-2

Grove, A.T. (1977). The geography of semi-arid lands, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, B, 278, 457-475. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1977.0055

Hirschboeck, K.K. (1990). Flood hidroclimatology. En Flood Geomorphology, editado por V.R. Baker, R.C. Kochel, y P.C. Patton, Wiley, N. York.

Heathcote, R.L. (1983). The arid lands: their use and abuse, Longman, London.

Hoogmoed W.B. and Stroosnijder, L. (1984). Crust formation of sandy soils in the Sahel. I. rainfall and infiltration. Soil Tillage Res.,4, 5-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-1987(84)90013-8

Islam, S., Bras, R.L, y Rodriguez-Iturbe, I. (1988). Multidimensional modeling of cumulative rainfall: parameter estimation and model adequacy through a continuum of scales. Water Resour. Res.24(7), 985-992. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR024i007p00985

Kavvas, M.L. and Delleur, J.W. (1981). A stochastic cluster model of daily rainfall sequences. Water Resour. Res.,17(4), 1151-1160. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR017i004p01151

Katz, R.W. and Parlange, M.B. (1995). Generalizations of chain-dependent processes: application to hourly precipitation. Water Resour. Res. 31(5), 1331-1341. https://doi.org/10.1029/94WR03152

Klemes, V. (1987). Empirical and causal models in hydrologic reliability analysis. En Engineering Reliability and Risk in Water Resources, editado por L. Duckstein y E.J. Plate, NATO ASI Series E, N. 124, Martinus Nijhoff Publ., Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3577-8_21

Koepsell, R.W. and Valdes, J.B. (1991). Multidimensional rainfall parameter estimation from a sparse network. ASCE J. Hydraul. Eng., 117(7), 832-850. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1991)117:7(832)

Lacewell, R.D. y Lee, J.G. (1988). Land and water management issues: Texas High Planes. En Water and Arid Lands of the Western United States, editado por M.E. El-Ashry y D.C. Gibbons, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511666902.005

Leavesley, G.H., Litchy, R.W., Troutman, B.M., y Saindon, L.G. (1983). Precipitation-runoff modeling system: users manual, U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations, Report 83-4238, 207 p.

Linsley, R.K., Kohler, M.A., y Paulhus, J.L.H. (1982). Hydrology for engineers, McGraw-Hill Book Company, N. York.

Loague, K. y Gander, G.A. (1990). R-5 revisited 1. Spatial variability of infiltration on a small rangeland catchment. Water Resour. Res., 26(5), 957-971. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR026i005p00957

Lorenz, E.N. (1990). Can chaos and intransitivity lead to interannual variability?. Tellus, 42A, 378-389. https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v42i3.11884

Marco, J.B. (1995). Hydrometeorological and hydraulic factors and problems related to floods in arid regions of Spain. US-Italy Research Workshop on the Hydrome-teorology, Impacts, and Management of Extreme Floods, Perugia, Italia, Nov. 13-17.

Matthai, H.F. (1990). Floods. En Surface Water Hydrology, editado por M.G. Wolman y H.C. Riggs, The Geology of North America, Vol. 0-1, The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado. https://doi.org/10.1130/DNAG-GNA-O1.97

McMahon, T.A. (1979). Hydrological characteristics of arid zones. En The Hydrology of Areas of Low Precipitation, Proc. del Simposio de Camberra, IAHS, Publ. N. 128, p. 105-123.

Meigs, P. (1952). Arid and semiarid climatic types of the world. Proceedings, VIII General Assembly and XVII International Congress, International Geographical Union, Washington D.C., p.135-138.

Meigs, P. (1953). World distribution of arid and semiarid homoclimates. En Arid Zone Hydrology, UNESCO Arid Zone Research Series, 1: 203-209.

Meng, H., Ramirez, J.A., Salas, J.D., y Ahuja, L.R. (1996). On the scaling characteristics of infiltration process. American Geophysical Union, Abstract, Fall Meeting en San Francisco.

Mimikou, M. (1983). Daily precipitation occurrences modeling with Markov chain of seasonal order. Hydrol. Sci. J., 28(2), 221-232. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626668309491962

Mualen Y. y Assouline, S. (1996). Soil sealing, infiltration and runoff. En Runoff, Infiltration and Subsurface low in Arid and Semi-arid Regions, Editado por A.S. Issar y S.D. Resnick, Kluwer Academic Publ., Boston. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-2929-1_4

Nielsen, D.R., Biggar, J.W., y Erb, K.T. (1973). Spatial variability of field-measured soil-water properties. Hilgardia, 42(7), 215-259. https://doi.org/10.3733/hilg.v42n07p215

Obeysekera, J.T.B., Tabios, G., and Salas, J.D. (1987). On parameter estimation of temporal rainfall models. Water Resour. Res.23(10), 1837-1850. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR023i010p01837

Osterkamp, W.R. y otros (1987). Great plains. En Geomorphic Systems of North America, editado por W.L. Graf, Centenial Special Vol. 2, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado. https://doi.org/10.1130/DNAG-CENT-v2.163

Page, J. (1984). Arid lands, Time-Life Books, Virginia.

Piechota, T.C. y Dracup, J.A. (1996). Drought and regional hydrologic variation in the United States: association with the El Niño-Southern oscillation. Water Resour. Res., 32(5), 1359-1373. https://doi.org/10.1029/96WR00353

Philip, J.R. (1957). Evaporation and moisture and heat fields in the soil. J. Meteorology, 14, 354-366. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1957)014<0354:EAMAHF>2.0.CO;2

Ramirez, J.A. y Bras, R.L. (1985). Conditional distributions of Neyman-Scott models for storm arrivals and their use in irrigation control. Water Resour. Res., 21(3),317-330. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR021i003p00317

Rawls, W.J., Ahuja, L.R., Brakensiek, D.L., y Shirmohammadi, A. (1993). Infiltration and soil water movement. En Handbook of Hydrology, edited by D.R. Maidment, Mc-Graw Hill Book Company, N. York.

Redmond, K.T. y Koch, R.W. (1991). Surface climate and streamflow variability in the Western United States and their relationship to large-scale circulation indices. Water Resour. Res.,27(9), 2381-2399. https://doi.org/10.1029/91WR00690

Riggs, H.C. y Harvey, K.D. (1990). Temporal and spatial variability of streamflow. En Surface Water Hydrology, editado por M.G. Wolman y H.C. Riggs, The Geology of North America, Vol. 0-1, The Geology Society of America Inc., Boulder, Colorado. https://doi.org/10.1130/DNAG-GNA-O1.81

Robinson, T.W. (1952). Phreatophytes and their relation to water in Western United States. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 33, 57-61. https://doi.org/10.1029/TR033i001p00057

Rodriguez-Iturbe I., Gupta, V.K., y Waymire, E. (1984). Scale consideration in the modeling of temporal rainfall. Water Resour. Res., 20(11), 1611-1619. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR020i011p01611

Rodriguez-Iturbe, I. (1986). Scale of fluctuations of rainfall models. Water Resour. Res., 22(9), 15S-37S. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR022i09Sp0015S

Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., Vogel, G.K., Rigon, R., Entekhabi, D., Castelli, F. y Rinaldo, A. (1995). On the spatial organization of soil moisture fields. Geoph. Res. Letters, 22(20), 2757-2760. https://doi.org/10.1029/95GL02779

Roesner, L.A. and Yevjevich, V. (1966). Mathematical models for time series of monthly precipitation and monthly runoff. Hydrology Paper 15, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Roldan, J. and Woolhiser, D.A. (1982). Stochastic daily precipitation models. Water Resour. Res., 18(5), 1451-1459. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR018i005p01451

Rovey, E.W., Woolhiser, D.A., y Smith, R.E. (1977). A distributed kinematic model of upland watersheds. Hydrology Paper 93, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Salas, J.D. y Boes, D.C. (1980). Shifting level modelling of hydrologic series. Advances in Water Resources, 3, 59-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1708(80)90028-7

Salas, J.D., Saada, N., y Chung, C.H. (1995). Stochastic modeling and simulation of the Nile River system monthly flows. Computing Hydrology Laboratory, Tech. Report 5, ERC, Colorado State University.

SCS (Soil Conservation Service) (1972). SCS national engineering handbook, Sec. 4, hydrology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA).

Schick, A.P. (1990). Hydrologic aspects of floods in extreme arid environments. En Flood Geomorphology, editado por V.R. Baker y otros, J. Wiley, N. York.

Shantz, H.L. (1956). History and problems of arid lands development. En The Future of Arid Lands, editado por G. F. White, Amer. Soc. Adv. Science, Publ. 43, Washington.

Slatyer, R.O. (1961). Methodology of a water balance study conducted on a desert woodland (Acacia Aneura F. Muell) community in Central Australia. UNESCO Proc. Madrid Symp. on Plant-Water Relations in Arid and Semiarid Conditions, p.15-26.

Slatyer, R.O. y Mabbutt, J.A. (1964). Hydrology of arid and semiarid regions. En Handbook of Applied Hydrology, editado por V.T. Chow, McGraw-Hill BookCompany, N. York.

Smith, R.E. and Schreiber, H.A. (1974). Point process of seasonal thunderstorm rainfall: 2. rainfall depth probabilities. Water Resour. Res., 10(3), 418-426. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR010i003p00418

Smith, R.E. y Hebbert, R.H.B. (1979). A MonteCarlo analysis of the hydrologic effects of spatial variability of infiltration. Water Resour. Res., 15(2), 419-429. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR015i002p00419

Stiling, P.D. (1996). Ecology: Theories and Applications, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, N. Jersey.

Thomas, D.S.G. (1989). The nature of arid environments. En Arid Zone Geomorphology, Halsted press, N. York.

Thornthwaite, C.W. (1948). An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geog. Rev., Vol.38, 55-94. https://doi.org/10.2307/210739

Trewartha, G.T. (1968). An introduction to climate, McGraw-Hill Book Company, N. York.

Weiss, G. (1977). Shot noise models for the generation of synthetic streamflow data. Water Resour. Res., 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1029/WR013i001p00101

Williams, M.A.J. y Balling, R.C. (1996). Interactions of desertification and climate. Prepared for WMO United Nations Environmental Programme, Arnold, N. York.

Woolhiser, D.A., Smith, R.E., y Goodrich, D.C. (1990). KINEROS, a kinematic runoff and erosion model: documentation and user manual. U.S. Agriculture Research Service, ARS-77.

Woolhiser, D.A., Smith, R.E., y Giraldez, J.V. (1996). Effects of spatial variability of saturated hydraulic conductivity on Hortonian overland flow. Water Resour. Res.,32(3), 671-678. https://doi.org/10.1029/95WR03108

UNEP (United nations Environment Programme) (1992). World atlas of desertification, E. Arnold, London.

UNESCO (1979). Map of the world distribution of arid regions, MAB Technical Notes 7, UNESCO, Paris.

Yevjevich, V. (1967). An objective approach to definitions and investigations of continental hydrologic droughts. Hydrology Paper 23, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Yevjevich, V. (1972). Probability and statistics in hydrology, Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colorado.

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


Citado por (artículos incluidos en Crossref)

This journal is a Crossref Cited-by Linking member. This list shows the references that citing the article automatically, if there are. For more information about the system please visit Crossref site

1. Assessing the vulnerability of groundwater resources in semiarid lands of central Argentina
Jorgelina Ceferina Montoya, Carolina Porfiri, Zinda Edith Roberto, Ernesto Francisco Viglizzo
Sustainable Water Resources Management  vol: 5  num.: 4  primera página: 1419  año: 2019  
doi: 10.1007/s40899-018-0246-4

Esta revista se publica bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.

Universitat Politècnica de València

Fundación para el Fomento de la Ingeniería del Agua

e-ISSN: 1886-4996  ISSN: 1134-2196