Las ecuaciones de Saint Venant para la modelización de avalanchas de nieve densa

M. Sanz-Ramos, E. Bladé, A. Torralba, P. Oller

Resumen

La creciente preocupación por los riesgos naturales, como las avalanchas de nieve, ha propiciado el desarrollo de modelos numéricos ad hoc como una herramienta de soporte para su análisis y evaluación. Los modelos existentes para simulación de aludes se basan en la conservación de la masa y de la cantidad de movimiento, que son unas ecuaciones similares a las ecuaciones de Saint Venant para agua con diferencias sólo en los términos de fricción (modelo reológico). Este documento muestra las posibilidades de estas ecuaciones para simular avalanchas de placa-densa y el tratamiento numérico realizado en Iber. Se ha empleado una nueva metodología para equilibrar el término fuente y el vector de flujo evitando así oscilaciones espurias y movimientos no reales, y que modifica la pendiente de fondo en base a los parámetros del fluido y así detener su movimiento. La herramienta se ha probado en dos casos de estudio para analizar el comportamiento del fluido en función de los parámetros del modelo reológico.


Palabras clave

modelización numérica; 2D-SWE; fluidos no-Newtonianos; avalanchas de nieve

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Referencias

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