Increased vulnerability of family farming in the context of a weakened FNS agenda due to austerity measures in Brazil

Authors

  • Carlos Germano Ferreira Costa Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation of Brazil (MCTI) -MCTI-Clima/Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceará (IFCE) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0280-7281

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.7201/earn.2021.01.05

Keywords:

Fiscal & institutional measures, Food & nutrition security agenda, Governance, Regional development planning & policy, Social impacts & social resilience

Abstract

SDG goals of ending poverty and achieving Zero Hunger must address the nexus of a transformational shift in the Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) Agenda, integrating more sustainable food systems, territorial development, sustainable infrastructure, fiscal and economic elements to robust social protection schemes. By considering Family Farming government expenditure budget, the slowing and stalled economic growth, and political and fiscal policy developments. We discuss Brazil's high-level government budgetary interventions, the governance and institutional contexts affecting food security as indicators of how aggressive budgetary and institutional measures have negatively impacted the nation's social protection policy environment, resilience, and sustainable development perspectives.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Carlos Germano Ferreira Costa, Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation of Brazil (MCTI) -MCTI-Clima/Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceará (IFCE)

Ph.D. in Environment and International Development (Conflicts and Environmental Governance) by the Federal University of Ceará, with a Post-doctorate in Agricultural and Environmental Risk Management, in the mixed center –Ceigram/itdUPM –of the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM). Currently working for the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communications of Brazil (MCTIC) as Researcher/Technical Consultant –National Circumstances and Measures for the Implementation of the Climate Convention in Brazil. His research and teaching work is linked to disaster risk reduction and management, environmental and territorial governance, and environmental analysis.

References

Almeida, J.A., Santos, A.S., Nascimento, M.A.O., Oliveira, J.V.C., Silva, D.G. & Mendes-Netto, R.S. (2017). "Factors Associated with Food Insecurity Risk and Nutrition in Rural Settlements of Families". Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 22(2), 479-488. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232017222.27102015

Antwi-Agyei, P., Dougill, A.J.N. & Stringer, L.C. (2015). "Impacts of Land Tenure Arrangements on The Adaptive Capacity of Marginalized Groups: The case of Ghana's Ejura Sekyedumase and Bongo 23 districts". Land Use Policy, 49, 203-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.08.007

Arias, D., Vieira, P.A., Contini, E., Farinelli, B. & Morria M (2017). "Agriculture Productivity Growth in Brazil: Recent Trend and Future Prospects". Brazil Productivity Growth Flagship Report. World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/268351520343354377/pdf/123948-WP-6-3-2018-8-39-22-AriasetalAgriculturalgrowthinBrazil.pdf

Baptista, E.A., Abel, G.J. & Campos, J. (2018). "Internal Migration in Brazil Using Circular Visualization". Regional Studies, Regional Sciences, 5(1), 361-364. https://doi.org/10.1080/21681376.2018.1526649

Bateman, J., Brochardt, V. & Porto, S. (2013). Brazil's Lessons in Rural Development: Family Agriculture, Access to Water, and Civic Engagement. Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA). Retrieved from: https://www.wola.org/sites/default/files/downloadable/WOLA_RPT_Open-Doors_FNL_med.pdf

Brancher, C. (2017). Reforma da Previdência e Ajuste Fiscal Têm a Ver? Politize. Retrieved from: https://www.politize.com.br/reforma-previdencia-ajuste-fiscal/

Bresciani, M.J., Gadner, M.M. & Hickmott, J. (2009). Demonstrating Student Success: A Practical Guide to Outcomes-Based Assessment of Learning and Development in Student Affairs. Virginia, USA: Stylus Publishing.

Brunner, S.H. & Grêt-Regamey, A. (2016). "Policy Strategies to Foster the Resilience of Mountain Social-Ecological Systems under Uncertain Global Change". Environmental Science & policy, 66, 129-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.09.003

Cesa-Bianchi, A. & Corugedo, E.F. (2017). Uncertainty, Financial Frictions, and Nominal Rigidities: A Quantitative Investigation. IMF Working Paper. Retrieved from: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2017/09/29/Uncertainty-Financial-Frictions-and-Nominal-Rigidities-A-Quantitative-Investigation-45246 https://doi.org/10.5089/9781484320723.001

Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (2017). The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ferreira Costa, C.G. (2014). "A Agricultura Familiar e os Desafios Frente à Redução de Pobreza e Desigualdade no Brasil". Revista Sapientia, 16, 19-22. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281934497_A_Agricultura_Familiar_e_os_Desafios_Frente_a_Reducao_de_Pobreza_e_Desigualdade_no_Brasil

Ferreira Costa, C.G., Holanda, A.K.C. & Díaz-Ambrona, G.H. (2016). "Riesgo, Innovación y Desarrollo en un Clima Cambiante: El Papel de las Políticas de Preparación para Sequías y Gestión de Riesgo de Desastres en Ceará, Brasil". Journal of Environmental Management & Sustainability (GeAS), 5(3), 87-105. https://doi.org/10.5585/geas.v5i3.505

Ferreira Costa, C.G. (2020a). "Disaster Risk Management as a Process to Forge Climate-Resilient Pathways: Lessons Learned from Cabo Verde". Revista DMA, 53, 250-275. https://doi.org/10.5380/dma.v53i0.67345

Ferreira Costa, C.G. (2020b). "New Governance Mechanisms Mainstreaming National Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Policies into the Local Level in the Brazilian Amazon". Gestión y Análisis de Políticas Públicas (GAPP), 23, 35-151. https://doi.org/10.24965/gapp.i23.10641

Gilad, S. (2019). "Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Pursuit of Richer Answers to Real-World Questions", Public Performance & Management Review, 1-25. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15309576.2019.1694546.

https://doi.org/10.1080/15309576.2019.1694546

Gross, A.S. (2018). Brazil Austerity Policies Devastating to Rural Communities: Analysis. Mongabay Series: Amazon Agribusiness. Retrieved from: https://news.mongabay.com/2018/08/brazil-austerity-policies-devastating-to-rural-communities-analysis/

Guanziroli, C.E. & Basco, C.A. (2010). Construction of Agrarian Policies in Brazil: The Case of the National Program to Strengthen Family Farming (PRONAF). IICA -Brasília, DF: Rural Development. Retrieved from: http://repiica.iica.int/docs/B2031i/B2031i.pdf

Hansen, J., Hellin, J., Rosenstock, T., Fisher, E., Cairns, J., Stirling, C., Lamanna, C., Van Etten, J., Rose, A. & Campbell, B. (2019). "Climate Risk Management and Rural Poverty Reduction". Agricultural Systems, 172, 28-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.019

Jaime, P.C., Delmuè, D.C.C., Campello, T., Silva, D.O. & Santos, L.M.P. (2018). "A Look at the Food and Nutrition Agenda Over Thirty Years of the Unified Health System". Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 23(6). 1829-1836. Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1413-81232018000601829&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232018236.05392018

Kim, K., Mungsunti, A., Sumner, A., & Yusuf, A. (2020). Structural Transformation and Inclusive Growth. Kuznets' Developer's Dilemma in Indonesia. WIDER Working Paper 2020/31. Retrieved from: https://www.wider.unu.edu/sites/default/files/Publications/Working-paper/PDF/wp2020-31.pdf https://doi.org/10.35188/UNU-WIDER/2020/788-0

Levitsky, S. & Ziblatt, D. (2018). Como as Democracias Morrem. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar. Retrieved from: http://dagobah.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Como-as-Democracias-Morrem-Steven-Levitsky.pdf

Lorenz, S. (2017). "Adaptation Planning and the Use of Climate Change Projections in Local Government in England and Germany". Regional Environmental Change, 17, 425-435. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-016-1030-3

MacLennan, M. (2015). Public policies for the strengthening of family farming in the Global South. International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth United Nations Development Programme, 12(4). Retrieved from: https://ipcig.org/pub/eng/PIF34_Public_policies_for_the_strengthening_of_family_farming_in_the_Global_South.pdf

Mayer, A. (2016). "Agribusiness and Family Farming in Brazil: Competing Modes of Agricultural Production". In Niewöhner, J. (Ed.): Land Use Competition. Human-Environment Interactions, vol 6 (pp. 279-293). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33628-2_17

Mariano, C.M. (2019). "Emenda Constitucional 95/2016 e o Teto dos Gastos Públicos: Brasil de Volta ao Estado de Exceção Econômico e ao Capitalismo de Desastre". Revista de Investigações Constitucionais, 4(1), 259-281. https://doi.org/10.5380/rinc.v4i1.50289

Mattos, L.M. (2017). Austeridade Fiscal e Desestruturação das Políticas Públicas Voltadas à Agricultura Familiar Brasileira. Brasil: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Retrieved from: https://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/184818/1/FES-Austeridade-fiscal-e-desestruturacao-das-politicas-publicas-voltadas-a-agricultura-familiar-brasileira-apagar.pdf

Mpofu, E. (2015). "Food Sovereignty as a Key Public Policy Framework for Strengthening Family Farming in the Global South". Public policies for the strengthening of family farming in the Global South. IPC-UNDP, (12)4, 8-10. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/family-farming/detail/es/c/396480/

Niederle, P., Grisa, C., Picolotto, E.L. & Soldera, D. (2019). "Narrative Disputes over Family-Farming Public Policies in Brazil: Conservative Attacks and Restricted Countermovement". Latin American Research Review, 54(3), 707-720. Retrieved from: https://larrlasa.org/articles/10.25222/larr.366/ https://doi.org/10.25222/larr.366

Ortiz, I., Cummins, M., Capaldo, J. & Karunanethy, K. (2015). The Decade of Adjustment: A review of Austerity Trends 2010-2020 in 187 countries. The South Centre Initiative for Policy Dialogue (IPD), Columbia University International Labour Office. Extension of Social Security (ESS). Working Paper No. 53. Retrieved from: https://www.social-protection.org/gimi/gess/RessourcePDF.action?ressource.ressourceId=53192 https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2685853

Ospina, S., Esteve, M. & Lee, S. (2017). "Assessing Qualitative Studies in Public Administration Research". Public Administration Review, 78(4). 593-605. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12837

Oosterlynck, S., Kazepov, Y., Novy, A., Cools, P., Sarius, T. & Wokuvitsch, F. (2015). Local Social Innovation and Welfare Sate Restructuring: Analysing their Relationship. Improve Working Paper No. 15/15, Antwerp: Herman Deleeck Center for Social Policy -University of Antwerp. Retrieved from: http://improve-research.eu/

Patton, M.Q. (2014). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods: Integrating Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Paulino, E.T. (2014). "The Agricultural, Environmental, and Sociopolitical Repercussions of Brazil's land Governance System". Land Use Policy, 36, 134-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.07.009

Peres, U.D. & Santos, F.P. (2020). "Gasto Público e Desigualdade Social: O Orçamento do Governo Federal Brasileiro entre 1995 e 2016". Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais, 35(103). https://doi.org/10.1590/3510307/2020

Rambo, J.R., Tarsitano, M.A.A. & Laforga, G. (2016). "Agricultura Familiar no Brasil, Conceito em Construção: Trajetórias de Lutas, História Pujante". Revista Ciências Ambientais, 14(1), 86-96. Retrieved from: https://periodicos.unemat.br/index.php/rcaa/article/view/1415

Sabourin, E., Craviotti, C. & Milhorance, C. (2020). "The Dismantling of Family Farming Policies in Brazil and Argentina". International Review of Public Policy. 2(1), 45-67. https://doi.org/10.4000/irpp.799

Santana, C.A.M. & Nascimento, J.R. (2012). Public Policies and Agricultural Investments in Brazil. FAO -Rome. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/tci/pdf/InvestmentPolicy/Inv_in_Br_agriculture_-_20_08_2012.pdf

Santarelli, M., Viera, M.L. & Constantice, J. (2018). Learning from Brazil's Food and Nutrition Security Policies. Brasil: Institute of Development Studies. Retrieved from: https://foodfoundation.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Learning-from-Brazilian-Food-and-Nutrition-Security-Policies_final_clean_rev_FF.pdf

Santos, G.R. & Freitas, R.E. (2017). Gasto Público com a Agricultura no Brasil: Uma Abordagem a Partir de Dados Agregados. Brasil: IPEA. Retrieved from: http://repositorio.ipea.gov.br/bitstream/11058/8159/1/BRU_n17_Gasto.pdf

Santos, I.S. & Vieira, F.S. (2018). "The Right to Healthcare and Fiscal Austerity: The Brazilian case from an International Perspective". Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 23(7). 2303-2314. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232018237.09192018

Sauer, S., Leite, A., Oliveira, K. & Shankland, A. (2019). The Implications of Closing Civic Space for Sustainable Development in Brazil. Mimeo, UDS, and ACT Alliance. Retrieved from: https://www.ids.ac.uk/publications/the-implications-of-closing-civic-space-for-sustainable-development-in-brazil/

Sauer, S., Frigo, D., Barreto, M. & Almeida, F. (2018). "O Desmonte da Política Nacional de Agricultura Familiar e o Aumento da Violência no Campo",. In Frigo D, Mielke AC, Afonso A, Batista J, Barreto M, Carreira D, Oliveira MS, Trentin M (Eds.): Relatoria Especial dos impactos de Política Econômica sobre os Direitos Humanos (pp. 12-21). Brasil: DHESCA. Retrieved from: https://br.boell.org/sites/default/files/publicacao_dhesca_preliminar_2_baixa.pdf

Sehmi, R., Mbow, C., Pitkanen, S., Cross, H., Berry, N., Riddell, M., Heiskanen, J. & Aynekulu, E. (2016). Replicable Tools and Frameworks for Biocarbon Development in West Africa. ICRAF Working paper, 237. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.5716/WP16138.PDF

Souza, L.E.P.F., Barros, R.D., Barreto, M.L., Katikireddi, S.V., Hone, T.V., Sousa, R.P., Leykand, A., Rsella, D., Millet, C.J. & Pescarini, J. (2019). "The Potential Impact of Austerity on the Attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals in Brazil". BMJ Global Health, (4)5, 1-7. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001661

Sumner, A. (2017). The Development's Dilemma: The Inequality Dynamics of Structural Transformation and Inclusive Growth. ESRC GPID Research Networking Paper, 1. Retrieved from: https://www.gpidnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/WP_1.pdf

Tomlinson, I. (2013). "Doubling Food Production to Feed the 9 Billion: A Critical Perspective on a Key Discourse of Food Security in the UK". Journal of Rural Studies, 2, 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.09.001

Trivellato, P.T., Morais, D.C., Lopes, S.O., Miguel, E.S., Franceschini, S.C.C. & Priore, S.E. (2019). "Insegurança Alimentar e Nutricional em Famílias do Meio Rural Brasileiro: Revisão Sistemática". Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 24(3), 865-874. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232018243.05352017

Upcraft, M.L. & Schuh, J.H. (1996). Assessment in Student Affairs: A Guide for Practitioners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sources

Brazil. (2019). Ordinance No. 674 of December 30, 2019. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.in.gov.br/web/dou/-/portaria-n-674-de-30-de-dezembro-de-2019-236173162

Brazil. (2019). Law No. 13,844, of June 18, 2019. Conversion of Provisional Measure No. 870, of 2019. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2019-2022/2019/Lei/L13844.htm

Brazil. (2019). Law No. 9,906 July 9, 2019. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2019-2022/2019/Decreto/D9906.htm#art22

Brazil. (2019). PLV 10/2019. Presentation of the Conversion Bill No. 10/2019 (PLV 10/2019), by the Joint Commission of MPV No. 870/2019. Federal Government of Brazil. https://www.camara.leg.br/proposicoesWeb/fichadetramitacao?idProposicao=2202352

Brazil. (2019). Decree No. 9,667 of January 2, 2019. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.in.gov.br/materia/-/asset_publisher/Kujrw0TZC2Mb/content/id/57633308

Brazil. (2019). Provisional Measure No. 870 of January 1, 2019. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2019-2022/2019/Mpv/mpv870.htm

Brazil. (2018). Law No. 13,588 of January 3, 2018. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2018/Lei/L13588.htm#art1

Brazil. (2017). Decree No. 9,064 of May 31, 2017. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2017/decreto/d9064.htm

Brazil. (2016). Constitutional Amendment No. 95, of December 15, 2016. Federal Government of Brazil. https://legis.senado.leg.br/norma/540698

Brazil. (2016). Law No. 13,249 of January 13, 2016. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2016/Lei/L13249.htm

Brazil. (2010). Decree No. 7,272 of August 25, 2010. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www4.planalto.gov.br/consea/conferencia/documentos/lei-de-seguranca-alimentar-e-nutricional

Brazil. (2010). Constitutional Amendment No. 64 on the Federal Constitution of Brazil, of February 4, 2010. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/constituicao/emendas/emc/emc64.htm

Brazil. (2009). Law No. 11,947 of June 16, 2009. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2007-2010/2009/lei/l11947.htm

Brazil. (2006). Law No. 11,346 of September 15, 2006. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2006/Lei/L11346.htm

Brazil. (2006a). Law No. 11,326 of July 2006. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2004-2006/2006/lei/l11326.htm

Brazil (1999). Decree No. 2,999 March 25, 1999 (Extinct). Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/decreto/D2999.htm#art10

Brazil. (1993). Decree No. 807 April 22, 1993 (Extinct). Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/decreto/1990-1994/D0807.htm

Brazil. (1988). 1988's Federal Constitution of Brazil. Federal Government of Brazil. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/constituicao/constituicao.htm

CDHM. (2019). O Curto Caminho de Volta ao Mapa da Fome. Federal Government of Brazil. https://www2.camara.leg.br/atividade-legislativa/comissoes/comissoes-permanentes/cdhm/noticias/o-curto-caminho-de-volta-ao-mapa-da-fome

CONSEA. (2017). Conselho Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (Consea). Federal Government of Brazil. http://www4.planalto.gov.br/consea/acesso-a-informacao/institucional/o-que-e-o-consea

EMBRAPA. (2018). Visão 2030: o Futuro da Agricultura Brasileira. EMBRAPA. Brasil, DF. https://www.embrapa.br/documents/10180/9543845/Vis%C3%A3o+2030+-+o+futuro+da+agricultura+brasileira/2a9a0f27-0ead-991a-8cbf-af8e89d62829

FAO IFAD UNICEF WFP WHO. (2020). The Sate of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020. Transforming Food Systems for Affordable Healthy Diets. Rome: FAO. http://www.fao.org/documents/card/en/c/ca9692en

FAO. (2018). FAO's Work on Family Farming: Preparing for the Decade of Family Farming (2019-2028) to Achieve the SDGs. Sustainable Development Goals. Working for Zero Hunger. http://www.fao.org/3/CA1465EN/ca1465en.pdf

FAO FIDA PMA. (2014). O Estado da Insegurança Alimentar no Mundo. Fortalecimento de um Ambiente Favorável para a Segurança Alimentar e Nutrição. Rome: FAO. Resumo. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4037o.pdf

FFE. (2018). Austeridade e Retrocesso: Impactos Socais da Política Fiscal no Brasil. Fundação Friedrich Ebert/Brasil Debate. http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/brasilien/14632.pdf

FGV. (2018). What was the Impact of the Crisis on Poverty and Income Distribution? (Qual Foi o Impacto da Crise Sobre Pobreza e Distribuição de Renda?). Fundação Getúlio Vargas. Social. Centro de Políticas Sociais. Neri, M. https://cps.fgv.br/Pobreza_Desigualdade

GESER. (2019). Centro de Estudos em Gestão de Seguros e Riscos. Departamento de Economia, Administração e Sociologia (LES). (ESALQ/USP-DER/UFPEL). http://www.esalq.usp.br/geser/index.php?acao=publicacoes and http://www.mda.gov.br/sitemda/sites/sitemda/files/user_arquivos_25/Caderno%20de%20Graficos%20BSM%20-%203%2C5%20anos%20-%20Rural.pdf

GTSC A2030. (2018). Relatório Luz da Agenda 2030 de Desenvolvimento Sustentável: Síntese II. Grupo de Trabalho da Sociedade Civil para Agenda 2030. http://www4.planalto.gov.br/consea/comunicacao/noticias/2018/copy2_of_maio/relatorio-luz-aponta-risco-de-volta-ao-mapa-da-fome/relatoriosicc81ntese_final_download1.pdf

IBGE. (2020a). Prevalência de Insegurança Alimentar Moderada ou Grave, Baseado na Escala de Experiência de Insegurança Alimentar (FIES). Sustainable Development Goals. Federal Government of Brazil. https://odsbrasil.gov.br/objetivo2/indicador212#

IBGE. (2020b). Pesquisa de orçamentos familiares: 2017-2018. Análise da segurança alimentar no Brasil/IBGE, Coordenação de Trabalho e Rendimento. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/index.php/biblioteca-catalogo?view=detalhes&id=2101749

IBGE. (2019a). IBGE Divulga as Estimativas da População dos Municípios para 2019. Agência IBGE Notícias. Editorial: Estatísticas Sociais. https://agenciadenoticias.ibge.gov.br/agencia-sala-de-imprensa/2013-agencia-de-noticias/releases/25278-ibge-divulga-as-estimativas-da-populacao-dos-municipios-para-2019

IBGE (2019b). Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua (PNAD). Rendimento de Todas as Fontes 2019. https://www.ibge.gov.br/estatisticas/sociais/populacao/17270-pnadcontinua.html?edicao=27257

IBGE. (2018). Síntese de Indicadores Sociais: Uma Análise das Condições de Vida da População Brasileira. Coordenação de População e Indicadores Sociais. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv101629.pdf

IBGE. (2017). 2017 Brazilian Agricultural Census: Population and Agricultural Establishments. https://censos.ibge.gov.br/agro/2017/divulgacao-censo-agro-2017.html

IBGE. (2013). Segurança Alimentar: Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD). Ministério de Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv91984.pdf

IBGE. (2006). 2006 Brazilian Agricultural Census. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/periodicos/51/agro_2006.pdf

IDB Group. (2019). Attributes and Framework for Sustainable Infrastructure. Bhattacharya A, Contreras CC, Jeong M, Amin AL, Watkins G, Zuniga MS, p. cm. IDB Technical Note; 1653. Climate Change Division. https://publications.iadb.org/en/attributes-and-framework-sustainable-infrastructure

INESC OXFAM CESR. (2018). Brasil: Direitos Humanos em Tempos de Austeridade. Relatório Informativo. Instituto de Estudos Socioeconômicos/Oxfam Brasil/Centro para os Direitos Econômicos e Sociais. http://www4.planalto.gov.br/consea/eventos/plenarias/temasemdestaque/atividade-de-formacao/fact-sheet_direitos_humanos.pdf

IPCC SRCCL. (2019). Climate Change and Land. IPCC Special Report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Summary for Policymakers/Chapters 5,6,7. Approved Draft. WMO/UNEP. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2019/08/4.-SPM_Approved_Microsite_FINAL.pdf

IPC-IG. (2016). O Cadastro único como Instrumento de Articulação de Políticas Sociais. Working Paper, 145. International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth. 24. https://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/port/WP145PT_Cadastro_Unico_como_instrumento_de_articulacao.pdf

IPEA. (2014). A Trajetória Histórica da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional na Agenda Política Nacional: Projetos, Descontinuidades e Consolidação. Silva S.P. Texto para discussão. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada. http://repositorio.ipea.gov.br/bitstream/11058/3019/1/TD_1953.pdf

MDA. (2014). Plano Brasil Sem Miséria: Resultados no Meio Rural (2011-2014). Ministério do Desenvolvimento Agrário/Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome. http://www.mds.gov.br/webarquivos/publicacao/brasil_sem_miseria/cadernodegraficosbsm-35anos.pdf

MDS. (2019). Bolsa Família Repassa R$ 2,6 Bilhões a Beneficiários em Abril. Secretaria Especial do Desenvolvimento Social. http://mds.gov.br/area-de-imprensa/noticias/2019/abril/bolsa-familia-repassa-r-2-6-bilhoes-a-beneficiarios-em-abril

MDS. (2015). Plano Brasil Sem Miséria: Cadernos de Resultados (2011-2014). Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome. http://www.mds.gov.br/webarquivos/publicacao/brasil_sem_miseria/cadernodegraficosbsm-35anos.pdf

MDS. (2014). PAA: 10 Anos de Aquisição de Alimentos. Secretaria Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional. https://issuu.com/sagi_mds/docs/paa_10_completo

OHCHR. (1966). International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Adopted and opened for signature, ratification, and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of December 16, 1966, entry into force January 3, 1976, under article 27. United Nations Human Rights. Office of the High Commissioner. https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx

OXFAM. (2020). O Vírus da Fome: Como o Coronavírus está Aumentando a Fome em um Mundo Faminto. OXFAM Brazil Report. https://d2v21prk53tg5m.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Informe-Virus-da-Fome-embargado-FINAL-1.pdf

TESOURO NACIONAL. (2016). Gasto Social do Governo Central: 2002 a 2015. Secretaria do Tesouro Nacional. http://www.tesouro.fazenda.gov.br/documents/10180/318974/Gasto+Social+Governo+Central

SIGA BRASIL. (2020). Federal Public Budget Information System of Brazil. Federal Senate. https://www12.senado.leg.br/orcamento/sigabrasil

UN. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). General Assembly Resolution 217 A. United Nations. https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/

UNDESA. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). DESA Sustainable Development News. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/categories/sustainable.html

Downloads

Published

2021-06-23

Issue

Section

Article