Product-country image and crises in the Spanish horticultural sector: Classification and impact on the market

M. Mar Serrano-Arcos, Juan Carlos Pérez-Mesa, Raquel Sánchez-Fernández

Abstract

This research provides a conceptual framework to analyse the concept of ‘crisis’ and its multiple origins in the Spanish horticultural sector, the largest horticultural exporter in Europe. For this purpose, this study provides a typology of crises and a classification according to their nature, reasons, and temporary impact. Consequently, this research reviews and chronologically classifies the harmful campaigns that have originated several of those crises. Additionally, the impact on the perceived product-country image is analysed through an empirical research based on the results of a survey of consumers in several European countries.


Keywords

Consumer; food safety crisis; product-country image; Spanish horticultural exports

Subject classification

Q17, L14.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Ahmed, S.A. & d’Astous, A. (2008). “Antecedents, moderators and dimensions of country-of origin evaluations”. International Marketing Review, 25(1), 75-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02651330810851890.

Ahluwalia, R., Burnkrant, R.E. & Unnava, H.R. (2000). “Consumer response to negative publicity: The moderating role of commitment”. Journal of Marketing Research, 37(2), 203-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.37.2.203.18734.

Andéhn, M., Nordin, F. & Nilsson, M.E. (2016). “Facets of country image and brand equity: Revisiting the role of product categories in country-of-origin effect research”. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 15(3), 225-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cb.1550.

Balabanis, G. & Diamantopoulos, A. (2004). “Domestic country bias, countryof- origin effects, and consumer ethnocentrism: A multidimensional unfolding approach”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(1), 80-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0092070303257644.

Baltar, F. & Brunet, I. (2012). “Social research 2.0: Virtual snowball sampling method using Facebook”. Internet Research, 22(1), 57-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10662241211199960.

Barbarossa, C., De Pelsmacker, P., Moons, I. & Marcati, A. (2016). “The influence of country-of-origin stereotypes on consumer responses to food safety scandals: The case of the horsemeat adulteration”. Food Quality and Preference, 53, 71-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.05.015.

Berger, J. (2014). “Word of mouth and interpersonal communication: A review and directions for future research”. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24(4), 586-607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2014.05.002.

Bessant, K.C. (2007). “Multiple discourses on crisis: Farm, agricultural, and rural policy implications”. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 55(4), 443-457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7976.2007.00101.x.

Brijs, K., Bloemer, J. & Kasper, H. (2011). “Country image discourse model: Unraveling meaning, structure, & function of country images”. Journal of Business Research, 64(12), 1259-1269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.01.017.

Böcker, A. & Hanf, C.H. (2000). “Confidence lost and-partially-regained: Consumer response to food scares”. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 43(4), 471-485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2681(00)00131-1.

Carneiro, J. & Faria, F. (2016). “Quest for purposefully designed conceptualization of the country-of-origin image construct”. Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 4411-4420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.12.075.

Chattalas, M., Kramer, T. & Takada, H. (2008). “The impact of national stereotypes on the country of origin effect: A conceptual framework”. International Marketing Review, 25(1), 54-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02651330810851881.

Cheng, L., Jiang, S., Zhang, S., You, H., Zhang, J., Zhou, Z., Xiao, Y., Liu, X., Du, Y., Li, J., Wang, X., Xin, Y., Zheng, Y. & Shang, K. (2016). “Consumers’

behaviors and concerns on fresh vegetable purchase and safety in Beijing urban areas, China”. Food Control, 63, 101-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.11.024.

Cherrier, H. (2009). “Anti-consumption discourses and consumer-resistant identities”. Journal of Business Research, 62(2), 181-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.01.025.

Chryssochoidis, G., Krystallis, A. & Perreas, P. (2007). “Ethnocentric beliefs and country-of-origin (COO) effect: Impact of country, product and product attributes on Greek consumers’ evaluation of food products”. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1518-1544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090560710821288.

Cilingir, Z. & Basfirinci, C. (2014). “The impact of consumer ethnocentrism, product involvement, and product knowledge on country of origin effects: An empirical analysis on Turkish consumers’ product evaluation”. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 26(4), 284-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08961530.2014.916189.

Costa, C., Carneiro, J. & Goldszmidt, R. (2016). “A contingent approach to countryof- origin effects on foreign products evaluation: Interaction of facets of country image with product classes”. International Business Review, 25(5), 1066-1075. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2016.01.003.

Dean, D.H. (2004). “Consumer reaction to negative publicity: Effects of corporate reputation, response, and responsibility for a crisis event”. Journal of Business Communication, 41(2), 192-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021943603261748.

Degeratu, A.M., Rangaswamy, A. & Wu, J. (2000). “Consumer choice behavior in online and traditional supermarkets: The effects of brand name, price, and other search attributes”. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 17(1), 55-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(00)00005-7.

Duffy, B. Smith, K., Terhanian, G. & Bremer, J. (2005). “Comparing data from online and face-to-face surveys”. International Journal of Market Research, 47(6), 615-639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147078530504700602.

Dosman, D.M., Adamowicz, W.L. & Hrudey, S.E. (2001). “Socioeconomic determinants of health-and food safety related risk perceptions”. Risk Analysis, 21(2), 307-318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0272-4332.212113.

Eurostat. (2017). Exportation data. Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Gaspar, R., Gorjão, S., Seibt, B., Lima, L., Barnett, J., Moss, A. & Wills, J. (2014). “Tweeting during food crises: A psychosocial analysis of threat coping expressions in Spain, during the 2011 European EHEC outbreak”. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 72(2), 239-254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2013.10.001.

Grindlay, A.L., Lizárraga, C., Rodríguez, M.I. & Molero, E. (2011). “Irrigation and territory in the southeast of Spain: Evolution and future perspectives within new hydrological planning”. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 150, 623-637. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/SDP110521.

Glik, D.C. (2007). “Risk communication for public health emergencies”. Annual Review of Public Health, 28, 33-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth. 28.021406.144123.

Haarstad, N.D. & Littlefield, R.S. (2015). “The Tension of Certainty: The mistakes of the E.coli outbreak in Europe”. In Robert, L. & Timothy, L.S. (Eds.): Risk and Crisis Communication: Navigating the Tensions between Organizations and the Public (pp. 57-70). Lanham: Lexington Books.

Hermann, C.F. (1972). “Some issues in the study of international crisis”. In Hermann, C.F. (Ed.): International Crises: Insights from Behavioral Research (pp. 3-17). New York: Free Press.

Heslop, L.A., Lu, I.R.R. & Cray, D. (2008). “Modeling country image effects through an international crisis”. International Marketing Review, 25(4), 354-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02651330810887440.

Hoffmann, S. (2011). “Anti-consumption as a means to save jobs”. European Journal of Marketing, 45(11/12), 1702-1714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090561111167342.

Hsu, C.L., Chang, C.Y. & Yansritakul, C. (2017). “Exploring purchase intention of green skincare products using the theory of planned behavior: Testing the moderating effects of country of origin and price sensitivity”. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 34, 145-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser. 2016.10.006.

Instituto de Comercio Exterior – ICEX. (2017). Export data. Retrieved from: www.icex.es.

Iyer, R. & Muncy, J.A. (2009). “Purpose and object of anti-consumption”. Journal of Business Research, 62(2), 160-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres. 2008.01.023.

Jaffe, E.D. & Nebenzahl, I.D. (2006). “It’s all in the eyes of the consumer”. In Jaffe, E.D. & Nebenzahl I.D. (Eds.): National Image & Competitive Advantage: The Theory and Practice of Place Branding (pp. 79-109). Copenhagen: Narayana Press.

Josiassen, A., Lukas, B.A. & Whitwell, G.J. (2008). “Country-of-origin contingencies: Competing perspectives on product familiarity and product involvement”. International Marketing Review, 25(4), 423-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02651330810887477.

Juntti, M. & Downward, S.D. (2017). “Interrogating sustainable productivism: Lessons from the ‘Almerían miracle’”. Land Use Policy, 66, 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.04.016.

Köster, E.P. (2009). “Diversity in the determinants of food choice: A psychological perspective”. Food Quality and Preference, 20(2), 70-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2007.11.002.

KREAB research (2015). Estudio de percepción: agricultura intensiva. Plataforma Tecnológica de Agricultura Sostenible. Available on: http://www.agriculturasostenible.org/v_portal/informacion/informacionver.asp?cod=7659&te=2287&idage=11240&vap=0&npag=1.

Laroche, M., Papadopoulos, N., Heslop, L.A. & Mourali, M. (2005). “The influence of country image structure on consumer evaluations of foreign

products”. International Marketing Review, 22(1), 96-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02651330510581190.

Laufer, D., Gillespie, K. & Silvera, D.H. (2009). “The role of country of manufacture in consumers’ attributions of blame in an ambiguous product-harm crisis”. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 21(3), 189-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08961530802202750.

Lopes, F., Ruão, T., Marinho, S. & Araújo, R. (2013). “Escherichia coli: A disease in the news through speeches of uncertainty and contradiction”. International Journal of Healthcare Management, 6(1), 51-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/2047971912Y.0000000016.

Medland, L. (2016). “Working for social sustainability: Insights from a Spanish organic production enclave”. Journal Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 40(10), 1133-1156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21683565.2016.1224213.

Nguyen H.D.M., Rutsaert, P., Van Loo, E.J. & Verbeke, W. (2017). “Consumers’ familiarity with and attitudes towards food quality certifications for rice and

vegetables in Vietnam”. Food Control, 82, 74-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.06.011.

Nijssen, E.J. & Douglas, S.P. (2004). “Examining the animosity model in a country with a high level of foreign trade”. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21(1), 23-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2003.05.001.

Nocella, G., Romano, D. & Stefani, G. (2014). “Consumers’ attitudes, trust and willingness to pay for food information”. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 38(2), 153-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcs.12080.

Olynk, N.J., Tonsor, G.T. & Wolf, C.A. (2010). “Consumer willingness to pay for livestock credence attribute claim verification”. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 35(2), 261-280.

Pérez-Mesa, J.C. & Galdeano-Gómez, E. (2010). “Agrifood cluster and transfer of technology in the Spanish vegetables exporting sector: The role of multinational enterprises”. Agricultural Economics, 56(10), 478-488. http://dx.doi.org/10.17221/111/2009-AGRICECON.

Pérez-Mesa, J.C. (2011). “First considerations on the impact of the “cucumber crisis” in the Spanish horticultural sector”. Cuadernos de Información Económica, 223, 29-36.

Pérez-Mesa, J.C. & Galdeano-Gómez, E. (2015). “Collaborative firms managing perishable products in a complex supply network: An empirical analysis of performance”. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 20(2), 128-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SCM-06-2014-0185.

Piedra-Muñoz, L., Galdeano-Gómez, E. & Pérez-Mesa, J.C. (2016). “Is sustainability compatible with profitability? An empirical analysis on family farming activity”. Sustainability, 8(9), 893. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su8090893.

Pumares, P. & Jolivet, D. (2014). “Origin matters: Working conditions of Moroccans and Romanians in the greenhouses of Almería”. In Gertel, J. & Sippel. S.R. (Eds.): Seasonal Workers in Mediterranean Agriculture. The Social Costs of Eating Fresh (pp. 130-140). New York: Routledge.

Roth, K.P. & Diamantopoulos, A. (2009). “Advancing the country image construct”. Journal of Business Research, 62(7), 726-740. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.05.014.

Samiee, S. (2010). “Advancing the country image construct - a commentary essay”. Journal of Business Research, 63(4), 442-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.12.012.

Shankarmahesh, M.N. (2006). “Consumer ethnocentrism: an integrative review of its antecedents and consequences”. International Marketing Review, 23(2), 146-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02651330610660065.

Sinesio, F., Saba, A., Peparaio, M., Civitelli, E.S., Paoletti, F. & Moneta, E. (2018). “Capturing consumer perception of vegetable freshness in a simulated reallife taste situation”. Food Research International, 105, 764-771. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.073.

Tsakiridou, E., Mattas, K. & Mpletsa, Z. (2009). “Consumers’ food choices for specific quality food products”. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 15(3), 200-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10454440902908217.

Vassilikopoulou, A., Siomkos, G., Chatzipanagiotou, K. & Pantouvakis, A. (2009). “Product-harm crisis management: Time heals all wounds?” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16(3), 174-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2008.11.011.

Verbeke, W. & Ward, R.W. (2001). “A fresh meat almost ideal demand system incorporating negative TV press and advertising impact”. Agricultural Economics, 25(2-3), 359-374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2001.tb00215.x.

Verbeke, W., Frewer, L.J., Scholderer, J. & De Brabander, H.F. (2007). “Why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information”. Analytica Chimica Acta, 586(1-2), 2-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.07.065.

Verlegh, P.W.J., Steenkamp, J.B.E.M. & Meulenberg, M.T.G. (2005). “Countryof- origin effects in consumer processing of advertising claims”. International

Journal of Research in Marketing, 22(2), 127-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2004.05.003.

Wainwright, H., Jordan, C. & Day, H. (2014). “Environmental Impact of Production Horticulture”. In Dixon, G.R. & Aldous, D.E. (Eds.): Horticulture: Plants for People and Places (pp. 503-522). Springer: Dordrecht.

Wandel, M. & Fagerli, R.A. (2001). “Consumer concern about food related health risks and their trust in experts”. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 40(3), 253-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03670244.2001.9991652.

Wang, C.L., Li, D., Barnes, B.R. & Ahn, J. (2012). “Country image, product image and consumer purchase intention: Evidence from an emerging economy”. International Business Review, 21(6), 1041-1051. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2011.11.010.

Washer, P. (2006). “Representations of mad cow disease”. Social Science & Medicine, 62(2), 457-466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016j.socscimed.2005.06.001.

Williamson, P.O., Lockshin, L., Francis, I.L. & Loose, S.M. (2016). “Influencing consumer choice: Short and medium term effect of country of origin information on wine choice”. Food Quality and Preference, 51, 89-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.02.018.

Wongprawmas, R. & Canavari, M. (2017). “Consumers’ willingness-to-pay for food safety labels in an emerging market: The case of fresh produce in Thailand”. Food Policy, 69, 25-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.03.004.

Zhou, L., Hui, M.H. & Zhou, N. (2007). “Confidence in brand origin and its strategic implications evidence from a developing market”. Administrative Sciences Association of Canada (ASAC) Annual Conference, Ottawa, Canada.

Abstract Views

1161
Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




 Universitat Politècnica de València

e-ISSN: 2174-7350   ISSN: 1578-0732   https://doi.org/10.4995/earn