Impact of trade and international transport on environmental quality, a study in Latin American and Caribbean countries

Christian Martín García

Abstract

This paper explores the effect of trade liberalization and international transport on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 18 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean for the period 1995-2013. The results indicate that an increase in the levels of trade openness has a greater effect for high-income countries (0.17 %) than for the others (0.067 %). While it is observed that an increase of 1 % in the tons transported per kilometer increases CO2 emissions by 0.022 % (high-income countries) and by 0.014 % (middle-high income countries).


Keywords

Carbon dioxide emissions in international transport; environmental degradation; trade openess in Latin America

Subject classification

F18, Q53.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Agencia Internacional de la Energía. (2009). World energy statistics. Obtenido de https://www.iea.org/statistics.

ARUP. (2015). Future of rail 2050. Obtenido de https://www.arup.com/publications/research/section/future-of-rail-2050.

Arellano, M. & Bond, S. (1991). “Some tests of specification for panel data: Monte Carlo evidence and an application to employment equations”. The Review of Economic Studies, 58(2), 277-297. https://doi.org/10.2307/2297968.

Baek, J., Cho, Y. & Koo, W.W. (2009). “The environmental consequences of globalization: A country-specific time-series analysis”. Ecological Economics, 68(8), 2255-2264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.02.021.

Banister, D. & Stead, D. (2002). “Reducing transport intensity”. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 2(3/4), 161-178. Obtenido de http://www.ejtir.tbm.tudelft.nl/issues/2002_03-04/pdf/2002_03-04_01.pdf.

Borhan, H., Ahmed, E.M. & Hitam, M. (2012). “The impact of CO2 on economic growth in ASEAN 8”. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 35, 389-397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.02.103.

Chandran, V.G.R. & Tang, C.F. (2013). “The impacts of transport energy consumption, foreign direct investment and income on CO 2 emissions in ASEAN-5 economies”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 24, 445-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.03.054.

Charfeddine, L. & Khediri, K. Ben. (2016). “Financial development and environmental quality in UAE: Cointegration with structural breaks”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 55, 1322-1335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.059.

Chi, J. & Baek, J. (2013). “Dynamic relationship between air transport demand and economic growth in the United States: A new look”. Transport Policy, 29, 257-260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2013.03.005.

Chintrakarn, P. & Millimet, D.L. (2006). “The environmental consequences of trade: Evidence from subnational trade flows”. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 52(1), 430-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2006.03.001.

Copeland, B.R. & Taylor, M.S. (1994). “North-South trade and the environment”. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 109(3), 755-787. https://doi.org/10.2307/2118421.

Copeland, B.R. & Taylor, M.S. (2001). International trade and the environment: A framework for analysis. NBER Working Paper, 8540. Obtenido de http://www.nber.org/papers/w8540.

Copeland, B.R. & Taylor, M.S. (2013). Trade and the Environment: Theory and Evidence. New Yersey: Princetone University Press.

Dean, J.M. (2002). “Does trade liberalization harm the environment? A new test”. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne D’économique, 35(4), 819-842. https://doi.org/10.1111/0008-4085.00155.

Frankel, J.A. & Rose, A.K. (2005). “Is trade good or bad for the environment? Sorting out the causality”. Review of Economics and Statistics, 87(1), 85-91. https://doi.org/10.1162/0034653053327577.

Fulton, L., Cazzola, P., Cuenot, F., Kojima, K., Onoda, T., Staub, J. & Taylor, M. (2009). “Transport, energy and CO2: Moving toward sustainability”. In 3rd International Taxi Forum 9 October. Obtenido de https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/transport2009.pdf.

Gleave, S.D. & Eder, P. (2003). “Freight transport intensity of production and consumption”. Report EUR, 20864. Sevilla: IPTS. Obtenido de http://www.stoa.europarl.europa.eu/stoa/webdav/shared/3_activities/transport/general/ipts_freight_en.pdf.

Kellenberg, D.K. (2008). “A reexamination of the role of income for the trade and environment debate”. Ecological Economics, 68(1), 106-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.02.007.

Kuznets, S. (1955). “Economic growth and income inequality”. The American Economic Review, 45(1), 1-28. Obtenido de http://www.jstor.org/stable/1811581.

Le, T.-H., Chang, Y. & Park, D. (2016). “Trade openness and environmental quality: International evidence”. Energy Policy, (92), 45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2016.01.030.

Lee, J.W. (2013). “The contribution of foreign direct investment to clean energy use, carbon emissions and economic growth”. Energy Policy, 55, 483-489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.12.039.

Léonardi, J. & Baumgartner, M. (2004). “CO2 efficiency in road freight transportation: Status quo, measures and potential”. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 9(6), 451-464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2004.08.004.

Lotfalipour, M.R., Falahi, M.A. & Ashena, M. (2010). “Economic growth, CO2 emissions, and fossil fuels consumption in Iran”. Energy, 35(12), 5115-5120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.08.004.

Lucas, R.E.B., Wheeler, D. & Hettige, H. (1993). Economic Development, Environmental Regulation, and the International Migration of Toxic Industrial Pollution, 1960-88. Policy Research Working Paper 1062. World Bank Publications. Obtenido de http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/673921468765926548/pdf/multi-page.pdf.

Marazzo, M., Scherre, R. & Fernandes, E. (2010). “Air transport demand and economic growth in Brazil: A time series analysis”. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 46(2), 261-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tre.2009.08.008.

Meersman, H. & de Voorde, E. (2013). “The relationship between economic activity and freight transport”. In Ben-Akiva, M., Meersman, H. & Van de Voorde, E. (Eds.): Freight Transport Modelling (pp. 15-43). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Menyah, K. & Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2010). “Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and economic growth in South Africa”. Energy Economics, 32(6), 1374-1382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2010.08.002.

OCDE. (2011). Moving Freight with Better Trucks: Improving Safety, Productivity and Sustainability. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789282102961-en.

Omri, A., Daly, S., Rault, C. & Chaibi, A. (2015). “Financial development, environmental quality, trade and economic growth: What causes what in MENA countries”. Energy Economics, 48, 242-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2015.01.008.

Omri, A. & Kahouli, B. (2014). “Causal relationships between energy consumption, foreign direct investment and economic growth: Fresh evidence from dynamic simultaneous-equations models”. Energy Policy, 67, 913-922. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.11.067.

Saboori, B., Sulaiman, J. & Mohd, S. (2012). “Economic growth and CO2 emissions in Malaysia: A cointegration analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve”. Energy Policy, 51, 184-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.08.065.

Saidi, S. & Hammami, S. (2017). “Modeling the causal linkages between transport, economic growth and environmental degradation for 75 countries”. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 53, 415-427. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.04.031.

Schäfer, A. (2005). “Structural change in energy use”. Energy Policy, 33(4), 429–437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2003.09.002.

Schipper, L., Scholl, L. & Price, L. (1997). “Energy use and carbon emissions from freight in 10 industrialized countries: An analysis of trends from 1973 to 1992”. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 2(1), 57-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1361-9209(96)00014-4.

Shahbaz, M. & Feridun, M. (2012). “Electricity consumption and economic growth empirical evidence from Pakistan”. Quality & Quantity, 46(5), 1583-1599. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-011-9468-3.

Shahbaz, M., Khraief, N. & Jemaa, M.M. Ben. (2015). “On the causal nexus of road transport CO2 emissions and macroeconomic variables in Tunisia: Evidence from combined cointegration tests”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 51, 89-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.014.

Sorrell, S., Lehtonen, M., Stapleton, L., Pujol, J. & Champion, T. (2009). “Decomposing road freight energy use in the United Kingdom”. Energy Policy, 37(8), 3115-3129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.04.004.

Steenhof, P., Woudsma, C. & Sparling, E. (2006). “Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada”. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 11(5), 369-376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2006.07.003.

Sturm, D.M. (2003). “Trade and the Environment: A Survey of the Literature”. In Marsiliani, L., Rauscher, M. & Withagen, C. (Eds.): Environmental policy in an international perspective (pp. 119-149). Springer.

Tanczos, K. & Torok, A. (2007). “The linkage between climate change and energy consumption of Hungary in the road transportation sector”. Transport, 22(2), 134-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/16484142.2007.9638112.

Tongwane, M., Piketh, S., Stevens, L. & Ramotubei, T. (2015). “Greenhouse gas emissions from road transport in South Africa and Lesotho between 2000 and 2009”. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 37, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2015.02.017.

UNDP. (2012). Greenhouse gas emissions in Tunisia in 2012. Obtenido de www.tn.undp.org.

WDI. (2015). EconStats. Obtenido de http://www.econstats.com/wdi/wdic_MNA.htm. Yandle, B., Vijayaraghavan, M., & Bhattarai, M. (2002). “The environmental Kuznets curve”. A Primer, PERC Research Study, 1-2. Obtenido de https://pdfs.semanticscholar.

org/ca8e/b9a0e139b1a52161971f3dd5ddf922cb75e9.pdf.

Yao, V.W. (2005). “The causal linkages between freight and economic fluctuations”. International Journal of Transport Economics/Rivista Internazionale Di Economia Dei Trasporti, 143-159. Obtenido de https://trid.trb.org/view/760520.

Abstract Views

973
Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




 Universitat Politècnica de València

e-ISSN: 2174-7350   ISSN: 1578-0732   https://doi.org/10.4995/earn