The lack of alternative income sources: The case of ornamental fishing in the Inirida fluvial confluence, Colombian Amazon

Daniel Guerrero, Marcela Franco-Jaramillo, Jordi Rosell

Abstract

In this paper we present a case study of the impoverished ornamental fishing situation in the Inirida Fluvial Confluence (IFC) in Colombia. For this purpose fieldwork was conducted to obtain primary data from fishermen in the zone. The results indicate that effort applied to create different economic activities have no significant impact on the income of fishermen. Community Agreements for Responsible Fishing (CARF) could be an effective policy for management of the resource; nevertheless, their establishment can bring a loss of livelihoods when there are no clear alternative income sources, and may be incompatible with poverty alleviation objectives. Due to this, alternative sources of income should also be promoted in policy-making.


Keywords

Inland fisheries; Natural Resource Management; Rural Development

Subject classification

Q22, I25, J15.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Adams, W., Aveling, M., Brockington, D., Dickson, B., Elliott, J., Hutton, J.,Roe, D., Vira, B. & Wolmer, W. (2004). "Biodiversity conservation and the eradication of poverty". Science, 306(5699), 1146-1149. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1097920

Agudelo, E., Sánchez, C.L., Rodríguez C.L., Bonilla-Castillo, C.A. & Gómez, C.A. (2011). "Diagnóstico de la pesquería en la cuenca del Amazonas". In: Lasso, C.A, Gutierrez, F.P., Morales-Betancourt, M.A., Agudelo, E., Ramírez-Gil, H. & Ajiaco-Martínez, R.E. Pesquerías continentales en Colombia: Cuenca Magdalena-Cauca, Sinú, Canalete, Atrato, Orinoco, Amazonas y vertiente del Pacífico. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, 169-198.

Ajiaco-Martínez, R.E, Ramírez-Gil, H., Sánchez-Duarte, P., Lasso, C. & Trujillo, F. (2012). Diagnóstico de la pesca ornamental en Colombia, vol. IV. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt.

Allan, J.D., Abell, R., Hogan, Z., Revenga, C., Taylor, B.W., Welcomme, R.L. & Winemiller, K. (2005). "Overfishing of inland waters". BioScience, 55(12), 1041-1051. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[1041:OOIW]2.0.CO;2

Allison, E.H. & Horemans, B. (2006). "Putting the Principles of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach into Fisheries Development Policy and Practice". Marine Policy, 30, 757-766. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2006.02.001

Anderson, L.G. (1980). "Necessary components of economics surplus in fisheries economics". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 37, 858-870. https://doi.org/10.1139/f80-114

Bailey, C. (1988). "The political economy of fishery development". Agricultural and Human Values, Winter- Spring, 35-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02217175

Bailey, C. & Jentoft, S. (1990). "Hard Choices in Fisheries Development". Marine Policy, July 1990, 333-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-597X(90)90055-V

Bavinck, M., Pollnac, R.B., Monnereau, I. & Failler, P. (2012). "Introduction to the Special Issue on Job Satisfaction in Fisheries in the Global South". Social Indicators Research, 109, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0051-7

Black, S.E, Devereux, P.J, Lundborg, P. & Majlesi, K. (2015). Learning to Take Risks? The Effect of Education on Risk-Taking in Financial Markets. IZA Discussion Paper No. 8905. https://doi.org/10.3386/w21043

Béné, C. & Friend, R.M. (2009). "Water, Poverty and Inland Fisheries: Lessons from Africa and Asia". Water International, 34(1), 47-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060802677838

Brockington, D. & Schmidt-Soltau, K. (2004). "The social and environmental impacts of wilderness and development". Oryx, 38(2), 140-142. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605304000250

Brockington, D. & Igoe, J. (2006). "Eviction for conservation. A global overview". Conservation and Society, 4(3), 424-470. Available from: http://www.conservationandsociety.org/text.asp?2006/4/3/424/49276.

Castro, F. & McGrath, D. (2010). "O manejo comunitario de lagos na Amazônia". Parcerías Estratégicas, 6(12), 112-116.

Cernea, M.M. & Schmidt-Soltau, K. (2006). "Poverty risks and national parks: Policy issues in conservation and resettlement". World Development, 34(10), 1808-1830. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2006.02.008

Conservation Intenational. (2007). Conservation Agreements: Model, Design and Implementation. Arlington: Conservation International.

Copes, P. (1989). "Why are fishing incomes often low? A critical review of the conventional wisdom. 89-1". Discussion Paper 21. Burnaby, Canada: Institute of Fisheries Analysis, Simon Fraser University.

Cunningham, S. (1993). Fishermen's incomes and fisheries management. Research Paper No.61, Portsmouth: CEMARE, University of Portsmouth.

Doulman, D.J. (2004). "Fisheries Management, Poverty Alleviation And The Implementation Of The Code Of Conduct For Responsible Fisheries". In: Neiland, A.E & Bené, C. (2004). Poverty and Small-Scale Fisheries in West Africa. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-2736-5_12

Dunn L.G. (1989). Development of inland fisheries under constraints from other uses of land and water resources: Guidelines for planners. FAO.

Ellis, F. (2000). "The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing Countries". Journal of Agricultural Economics, 21(2), 280-302. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-9552.2000.tb01229.x

Ellis, F. (1998). "Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification". The Journal of Development Studies, 35(1), 1-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220389808422553

FAO (2014). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2014. Rome.

Ferraro, P.J. & Hanauer, M.M. (2011). "Protecting ecosystems and alleviating poverty with parks and reserves: 'winewin' or tradeoffs?" Environment and Resource Economics, 48, 269-286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-010-9408-z

Fortin, M.J. & Gagnon, C. (1999). "An assessment of social impacts of national parks on communities in Quebec, Canada". Environmental Conservation, 26(3),200-211. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892999000284

Geographical Institute Agustin Codazzi (2011). Maps of Colombia. Gordon S.H. (1954). "The economic theory of a common property resources: The fishery". Journal of Political Economy, 62, 24-142. https://doi.org/10.1086/257497

Gylfason, T. (2001). "Natural resources, education and economic development". European Economics Review, 45, 847-859. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2921(01)00127-1

Hardin, G. (1968). "The tragedy of the commons". Science, 162, 1243-1248. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.162.3859.1243

Ikiara, M.M. & Odink, J.G. (2000). "Fishermen resistance to exit fisheries marine". Resource Economics, 14, 199-213. https://doi.org/10.1086/mre.14.3.42629265

Kraan, M. (2009). Creating Space for Fishermen's Livelihoods. Anlo-Ewe Beach Seine Fishermen's Negotiations for Livelihood Space within Multiple Governance Structures in Ghana. PhD Thesis. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.

Kooiman, J., Bavinck, M., Jentoft, S., & Pullin, R. (2005). Fish for Life: Interactive Governance for Fisheries. Amsterdam University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9789048505326

Lasso, C., Usma, J.S., Trujillo, F. & Rial, A. (2010). Biodiversidad de la Cuenca del Orinoco: bases científicas para la identificación de áreas prioritarias para la conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad. Instituto de Investigaciones de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, WWF Colombia, Fundación Omacha.

Londoño-Calle, V. (2012). "El Orinoco, a la espera de una firma". El Espectador. Online source: http://www.elespectador.com/impreso/vivir/articulo-359808-elorinoco-espera-de-una-firma.

Mancera-Rodríguez, N.J. & Álvarez-León, R. (2008). Comercio de peces ornamentales en Colombia. Acta Biológica Colombiana, 13(1), 23-52.

McKenzie, W. (1979). "Rational fishery management in a depressed region: The Atlantic ground fishery". Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 36, 811-826. https://doi.org/10.1139/f79-119

Mora, M., Niesten, E., Palacios, E., Palacios, F. & Victorio, I. (2010). Proceedings of the Berlin Conferences on Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. Freie Universität Berlin.

Moreno-Arias, C. & Moreno-Arias, L. (2010). "Ecología participativa para el manejo integral de humedales y recursos pesqueros en los lagos de la cuenca baja del río Caquetá y Apaporis (Amazonía Colombiana). Fase III: Informe final". Universidad de Antioquia y Conservación Internacional Colombia. In Mora et al. (2010). Proceedings of the Berlin Conferences on Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. Freie Universität Berlin.

Panayotou, T. (1988). Management concept for small-scale fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 228, Rome: FAO.

Payne I. (2000). "The changing role of fisheries in development policy". Natural Resource Perspectives No.59. London: DFIDOD.

Pearse P.H. (1982). Turning the tide: a new policy for Canada's Pacific fisheries. Final report of the Commission on Pacific Fisheries Policy. Vancouver B.C. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.11358

Pinedo, D. & Soria, C. (2008). El manejo de las pesquerías en los ríos tropicales de Sudamérica. Instituto del Bien Común. Lima, Perú. 492 pp.

Pollnac, R.B. & Poggie, J.J. (2008). "Happiness, well-being and psychocultural adaptation to the stresses associated with marine fishing". Human Ecology Review, 15(2), 194-200.

Ramírez-Gil, H. & Ajiaco-Martínez, R.E. (2001). "La pesca de especies ornamentals en el area de influencia de Inírida". In: La pesca en la baja Orinoquía colombiana: una vision integral. Instituto Nacional de Acuicultura y Pesca de Colombia, INPA. Bogotá.

Sachs, J.F. & Warner, A.M. (2001). "Natural Resources and Economic Development. The course of natural resources". European Economic Review, 45, 827-838. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9701.2006.00807.x

Shemweta, D.T.K. & Kideghesho, J.R. (2000). Human wildlife conflicts in Tanzania: what research and extension could offer to conflicts resolution. 1st University Wide Conference, Proceedings. Morogoro.

Sirén, A.H. (2006). "Natural Resources in Indigenous People's Land in Amazonia: a tragedy of Commons?" International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 13, 363-374. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504500609469686

Smith, I. (1981). "Improving fishing incomes when resources are overfished". Marine Policy, 5(1), 17-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-597X(81)90070-1

Smith, I. (1979). A research framework for traditional fisheries. Manila: ICLARM Studies Review (2).

Smith, N. (1985). "The impact of Cultural and Ecological Change on Amazonian Fisheries". Biological Conservation, 32, 355-373. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(85)90023-0

Syptak, J., Marsland, D. & Ulmer, D. (1999). Job satisfaction: Putting theory into practice. Family Practice Management, 6(9), 26-30.

Thapa, S. (2013). "Do protected areas and conservation incentives contribute to sustainable livelihoods? A case study of Bardia National Park, Nepal". Journal of Environmental Management, 128, 988-999. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.06.054

Townsley, P. (1998). "Aquatic resources and sustainable rural livelihoods". In Carney, D. (Ed.), Sustainable rural livelihoods: What contribution can we make? (pp.139-153). London: London Department for International Development.

Vedeld, P., Jumane, A., Wapalila, G. & Songorwa A. (2012). "Protected areas, poverty and conflicts A livelihood case study of Mikumi National Park, Tanzania". Forest Policy and Economics, 21, 20-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2012.01.008

West, P., Igoe, J. & Brockington, D. (2006). "Parks and peoples: the social impact of protected areas". Annual Review of Anthropology, 35, 251-277. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.35.081705.123308

WWF Colombia. (2010). Ficha información Ramsar entregada al Ministerio de Ambiente. Zuluaga, P.A. & Franco-Jaramillo, M. (2014). Comportamiento de pescadores frente a distintos arreglos institucionales en la Estrella Fluvial de Inírida Amazonía colombiana. Programa de Investigaciones Económicas Aplicadas para la Conservación en la Amazonía Andina. Conservation Strategy Fund. Technical Series No. 28. Lima, Perú.

Zuluaga, P.A. & Franco-Jaramillo, M. (2013). Acuerdos de pesca sostenible en las comunidades de la Estrella Fluvial Inírida. Report. Lima, Perú: Iniciativa para la Conservación en la Amazonía - ICAA. 56 pp.

Zúñiga, P.T. (2010). Lineamientos de gestión ambiental para el control del tráfico ilícito de peces ornamentales dulceacuícolas de las cuencas Amazonas y Orinoco. Master Thesis Dissertation. Bogotá: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.

Abstract Views

863
Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




 Universitat Politècnica de València

e-ISSN: 2174-7350   ISSN: 1578-0732   https://doi.org/10.4995/earn